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The Indians are of a copper or red-clay colour -- and they delight in every thing, which they imagine may promote and increase it: If we consider the common laws of nature and providence, we shall not be surprized at this custom; for every thing loves best its own likeness and place in the creation, and is disposed to ridicule its opposite.

If a deformed son of burning Africa, was to paint the devil, he would not do it in black colours, nor delineate him with a shagged coarse woolly head, nor with thick lips, a short flat nose or clumsy feet, like those of a bear: But was he to draw an agreeable picture, -- according to the African taste, he would daub it all over with sooty black.

All the Indians are so strongly attached to, and prejudiced in favour of, their own colour, that they think as meanly of the whites, as we possibly can do of them.

On the colour of the Indians of America. On the xxxxxx of the Indians of America. With a new Map of the Country referred to in the History. Printed for Edward and Charles Dilly, in the Poultry. Johnson, Baronet, was another of the Author's friends, and stood at the head of the MS. Gentlemen, To you, with the greatest propriety the following sheets are addressed.

Your distinguished abilities -- your thorough acquaintance with the North American Indians language, rites, and customs -- your long application and services in the dangerous sphere of an Indian life, and your successful management of the savage natives, are well known over all the continent of America. You often complained how the public had been imposed upon, either by fictitious and fabulous, or very superficial and conjectural accounts of the Indian nations [ iii ] and as often wished me to devote my leisure hours to the drawing up an Indian system.

You can witness, that what I now send into the world, was composed more from a regard to your request, than any forward desire of my own, The prospect of your patronage inspired me to write, and it is no small pleasure and honour to me, that such competent judges of the several particulars now presented to public view, expressed themselves with so much approbation of the contents.

You well know the uprightness of my intentions as to the information here given, and that truth hath been my grand standard. I may have erred in the application of the rites and customs of the Indians to their origin and descent -- and may have drawn some conclusions, exceeding the given evidence -- but candor will excuse the language of integrity: Should my performance be in the least degree instrumental to promote an accurate investigation and knowledge of [ iv ] of the American Indians -- their civilization -- and the happy settlement of the fertile lands around them, I shall rejoice; and the public will be greatly obliged to you, as your request incited to it; and to you I am also indebted for many interesting particulars, and valuable observations.

I embrace this opportunity, of paying a public testimony of my gratitude, for your many favours to me. All who know you, will readily acquit me of servility and flattery, in this address. Dedications founded on these motives, are the disgrace of literature, and an insult to common sense. There are too many instances of this prostitution in Great Britain, for it to be suffered in America.

Numbers of high seated patrons are praised for their divine wisdom and godlike virtues, and yet the whole empire is discontented, and America in strong convulsions. May you long enjoy your usual calm and prosperity! The following history, and observations, are the production of one who hath been chiefly engaged in an Indian life ever since the year The subjects are interesting, as well as amusing; but never was a literary work begun and carried on with more disadvantages.

The author was separated by his situation, from the conversation of the learned, and from any libraries -- Frequently interrupted also by business, and obliged to conceal his papers, through the natural jealousy of the natives; the traders letters of correspondence always excited their suspicions, and often gave offence.

A view of the disadvantages of my situation, made me reluctant to comply with the earnest and repeated solicitations of many worthy friends, to give the public an account of the Indian nations with whom I had long resided, was so intimately connected, and of whom scarcely any thing had yet been published but romance, and a mass of fiction. My friends at last prevailed, and on perusing the sheets, they were pleased to approve the contents, as conveying true information, and general entertainment.

Having no ambition to appear in the world as an author, and knowing that my history differed essentially from all former publications of the kind, I first resolved to suppress my name; but my friends advised me to own the work, and thus it is tendered to the public in the present form.

The performance, hath doubtless imperfections, humanum est errare. Some readers may think, there is too much of what relates to myself, and of the adventures of small parties among the Indians and traders. But minute circumstances are often of great consequence, especially in discovering the descent and genius of a people -- describing their manners and customs -- and giving proper information to rulers at a distance.

I thought it better to be esteemed prolix, than to omit any thing that might be useful on these points. Some repetitions, which occur, were necessary -- The history of the several Indian nations being so much intermixed with each other, and their customs so nearly alike.

One great advantage my readers will here have; I sat down to draw the Indians on the spot -- had them many years standing before me, -- and lived with them as a friend and brother. My intentions were pure when I wrote, truth hath been my standard, and I have no sinister or mercenary views in publishing. With inexpressible concern I read the several imperfect and fabulous accounts of the Indians, already given to the world -- Fiction and conjecture have no place in the following pages.

The public may depend on the fidelity of the author, and that his descriptions are genuine, though perhaps not so polished and romantic as other Indian histories and accounts, they may have seen.

My grand objects, were to give the Literati proper and good materials for tracing the origin of the American Indians -- and to incite the higher powers zealously to promote the best interests of the British colonies, and of the mother country. For whose greatness and happiness, I have the most ardent desires. The whole of the work is respectfully submitted to the candor and judgment of the impartial Public. Observations on their colour, shape, temper, and dress. Their division into tribes 18 II.

Their worship of Jehovah 32 III. Their notions of a theocracy 35 IV. Their belief in the ministration of angels 37 V. Their language and dialects 74 VI. Their manner of counting time 80 VII.

Their prophets and high priests 94 VIII. Their festivals, fasts, and religious rites IX. Their daily sacrifice p. Their ablutions and anointings XI. Their laws of uncleanness XII. Their abstinence from unclean things XIII. Their marriages, divorces, and punishment of adultery XIV. Their several punishments XV. Their cities of refuge XVI. Their purifications, and ceremonies preparatory to war XVII.

Their manner of curing the sick XIX. Their burial of the dead XX. Their mourning for their dead XXI. Their raising seed to a deceased brother XXII.

Their own traditions, the accounts of our English writers, and the testimonies which the Spanish and other authors have given, concerning the primitive inhabitants of Peru and Mexico. One instance will sufficiently shew in what flattering glasses they view themselves.

Some time past, a large body of the English Indian traders, on their way to the Choktah country, were escorted by a body of Creek and Choktah warriors. The Creeks having a particular friendship for some of the traders, who had treated them pretty liberally, took this opportunity to chide the Choktahs, before the traders, in a smart though friendly way, for not allowing to the English the name of human creatures: The hotter, or colder the climate is, where the Indians have long resided, the greater proportion have they either of the red, or white, colour.

Many incidents and observations lead me to believe, that the Indian colour is not natural; but that the external difference between them and the whites, proceeds entirely from their customs and method of living, and not from any inherent spring of nature; which will entirely overturn Lord Kames's whole system of colour, and separate races of men.

That the Indian colour is merely accidental, or artificial, appears pretty evident. Their own traditions record them to have come to their present lands by the way of the west, from a far distant country, and where there was no variegation of colour in human beings; and they are entirely ignorant which was the first or primitive colour.

Of this opinion, is Lord Kames, and which he labours to establish in his late publication, entitled, Sketches of the History of Man. But his reasoning on this point, for a local creation, is contrary both to revelation, and facts. His chief argument, that "there is not a single hair on the body of any American, nor the least appearance of a beard," is utterly destitute of foundation, as can be attested by all who have had any communication with them -- of this more presently -- Moreover, to form one creation of whites, a second creation for the yellows, and a third for the blacks, is a weakness, of which infinite wisdom is incapable.

Its operations are plain, easy, constant, and perfect. The variegation therefore of colours among the human race, depends upon a second cause. Lord Kames himself acknowledges, that "the Spanish inhabitants of Carthagena in South-America lose their vigour and colour in a few months" We are informed by the anatomical observations of our American physicians, concerning the Indians, that they have discerned a certain fine cowl, or web, of a red gluey substance, close under the outer skin, to which it reflects the colour; as the epidermis, or outer skin, is alike clear in every different creature.

And experience, which is the best medium to discover truth, gives the true cause why this corpus mucosum or gluish web, is red in the Indians, and white in us; the parching winds, and hot sun-beams, beating upon their naked bodies, in their various gradations of life, necessarily tarnish their skins with the tawny red colour.

Add to this, their constant anointing themselves with bear's oil, or grease, mixt with a certain red root, which, by a peculiar property, is able alone, in a few years time, to produce the Indian colour in those who are white born, and who have even advanced to maturity. These metamorphoses I have often seen. But fearing the consequences, he went round an hundred miles, toward the Cheerake nation, with his family, and the head warriors, and thereby evaded the danger. We may easily conclude then, what a fixt change of colour, such a constant method of life would produce: Besides, may we not suppose, that the imagination can impress the animalculae, in the time of copulation, by its strong subtile power, with at least such an external similitude, as we speak of?

We have good authority of a Spanish lady, who conceived, and was delivered of a negro child, by means of a black picture that hung on the wall, opposite to the bed where she lay. There is a record among the Chikkasah Indians, that tells us of a white child with flaxen hair, born in their country, long before any white people appeared in that part of the world; which they ascribed to the immediate power of the Deity impressing her imagination in a dream.

And the Philosophical Transactions assure us of two white children having been born of black parents. But waving all other arguments, the different method of living, connected with the difference of climates, and extraordinary anointings and paintings, will effect both outward and inward changes in the human race, all round the globe: For, though the laws of nature cannot be traced far, where there are various circumstances, and combinations of things, yet her works are exquisitely constant and regular, being thereto impelled by unerring divine Wisdom.

As the American Indians are of a reddish or copper colour, -- so in general they are strong, well proportioned in body and limbs, surprisingly active and nimble, and hardy in their own way of living.

They are ingenious, witty, cunning, and deceitful; very faithful indeed to their own tribes, but privately dishonest, and mischievous to the Europeans and christians.

Their being honest and harmless to each other, may be through fear of resentment and reprisal -- which is unavoidable in cafe of any injury.

They are timorous, and, consequently, cautious; very jealous of encroachments from their christian neighbours; and, likewise content with freedom, in every turn of fortune. They are possessed of a strong comprehensive judgment, -- can form surprisingly crafty schemes, and conduct them with equal caution, silence, and address; they admit none but distinguished warriors, and old beloved men, into their councils.

They are slow, but very persevering in their undertakings -- commonly temperate in eating, but excessively immoderate in drinking. The women, in general, are of a mild, amiable, soft disposition: The men are expert in the use of fire-arms, -- in shooting the bow, -- and throwing the feathered dart, and tomohawk, into the flying enemy. They resemble the lynx, with their sharp penetrating black eyes, and are exceedingly swift of foot; especially in a long chase: When they have allayed this their burning thirst, they return home, at their leisure, unless they chance to be pursued, as is sometimes the case; whence the traders say, that an Indian is never in a hurry, but when the devil is at his heels" It is remarkable, that there are no deformed Indians -- however, they are generally weaker, and smaller bodied, between the tropics, than in the higher latitudes; but not in an equal proportion: Such a small difference of latitude, in so healthy a region, could not make so wide a difference in the constitution of their bodies.

The former are a comely, pleasant looking people; their faces are tolerably round, contrary to the visage of the others, which inclines much to flatness, as is the case of most of the other Indian Americans.


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Of this opinion, is Lord Kames, and which he labours to establish in his late publication, entitled, Sketches of the History of Man.

But his reasoning on this point, for a local creation, is contrary both to revelation, and facts. His chief argument, that "there is not a single hair on the body of any American, nor the least appearance of a beard," is utterly destitute of foundation, as can be attested by all who have had any communication with them -- of this more presently -- Moreover, to form one creation of whites, a second creation for the yellows, and a third for the blacks, is a weakness, of which infinite wisdom is incapable.

Its operations are plain, easy, constant, and perfect. The variegation therefore of colours among the human race, depends upon a second cause. Lord Kames himself acknowledges, that "the Spanish inhabitants of Carthagena in South-America lose their vigour and colour in a few months" We are informed by the anatomical observations of our American physicians, concerning the Indians, that they have discerned a certain fine cowl, or web, of a red gluey substance, close under the outer skin, to which it reflects the colour; as the epidermis, or outer skin, is alike clear in every different creature.

And experience, which is the best medium to discover truth, gives the true cause why this corpus mucosum or gluish web, is red in the Indians, and white in us; the parching winds, and hot sun-beams, beating upon their naked bodies, in their various gradations of life, necessarily tarnish their skins with the tawny red colour. Add to this, their constant anointing themselves with bear's oil, or grease, mixt with a certain red root, which, by a peculiar property, is able alone, in a few years time, to produce the Indian colour in those who are white born, and who have even advanced to maturity.

These metamorphoses I have often seen. But fearing the consequences, he went round an hundred miles, toward the Cheerake nation, with his family, and the head warriors, and thereby evaded the danger. We may easily conclude then, what a fixt change of colour, such a constant method of life would produce: Besides, may we not suppose, that the imagination can impress the animalculae, in the time of copulation, by its strong subtile power, with at least such an external similitude, as we speak of?

We have good authority of a Spanish lady, who conceived, and was delivered of a negro child, by means of a black picture that hung on the wall, opposite to the bed where she lay. There is a record among the Chikkasah Indians, that tells us of a white child with flaxen hair, born in their country, long before any white people appeared in that part of the world; which they ascribed to the immediate power of the Deity impressing her imagination in a dream.

And the Philosophical Transactions assure us of two white children having been born of black parents. But waving all other arguments, the different method of living, connected with the difference of climates, and extraordinary anointings and paintings, will effect both outward and inward changes in the human race, all round the globe: For, though the laws of nature cannot be traced far, where there are various circumstances, and combinations of things, yet her works are exquisitely constant and regular, being thereto impelled by unerring divine Wisdom.

As the American Indians are of a reddish or copper colour, -- so in general they are strong, well proportioned in body and limbs, surprisingly active and nimble, and hardy in their own way of living. They are ingenious, witty, cunning, and deceitful; very faithful indeed to their own tribes, but privately dishonest, and mischievous to the Europeans and christians. Their being honest and harmless to each other, may be through fear of resentment and reprisal -- which is unavoidable in cafe of any injury.

They are timorous, and, consequently, cautious; very jealous of encroachments from their christian neighbours; and, likewise content with freedom, in every turn of fortune. They are possessed of a strong comprehensive judgment, -- can form surprisingly crafty schemes, and conduct them with equal caution, silence, and address; they admit none but distinguished warriors, and old beloved men, into their councils.

They are slow, but very persevering in their undertakings -- commonly temperate in eating, but excessively immoderate in drinking. The women, in general, are of a mild, amiable, soft disposition: The men are expert in the use of fire-arms, -- in shooting the bow, -- and throwing the feathered dart, and tomohawk, into the flying enemy.

They resemble the lynx, with their sharp penetrating black eyes, and are exceedingly swift of foot; especially in a long chase: When they have allayed this their burning thirst, they return home, at their leisure, unless they chance to be pursued, as is sometimes the case; whence the traders say, that an Indian is never in a hurry, but when the devil is at his heels" It is remarkable, that there are no deformed Indians -- however, they are generally weaker, and smaller bodied, between the tropics, than in the higher latitudes; but not in an equal proportion: Such a small difference of latitude, in so healthy a region, could not make so wide a difference in the constitution of their bodies.

The former are a comely, pleasant looking people; their faces are tolerably round, contrary to the visage of the others, which inclines much to flatness, as is the case of most of the other Indian Americans. The lips of the Indians, in general, are thin. I never saw any with curled hair, but one in the Choktah country, where was also another with red hair; probably, they were a mixture of the French and Indians. Romancing travellers, and their credulous copyists, report them to be imbarbes, and as persons impuberes, and they appear so to strangers.

But both sexes pluck all the hair off their bodies, with a kind of tweezers, made formerly of clam-shells, now of middle-sized wire, in the shape of a gun-worm; which, being twisted round a small stick, and the ends fastened therein, after being properly tempered, keeps its form: Their chief dress is very simple, like that of the patriarchal age; of choice, many of their old head-men wear a long wide frock, made of the skins of wild beasts, in honour of that antient custom: It must be necessity that forces them to the pinching sandals for their feet.

They seem quite easy, and indifferent, in every various scene of life, as if they were utterly divested of passions, and the sense of feeling. Martial virtue, and not riches, is their invariable standard for preferment; for they neither esteem, nor despite any of their people one jot more or less, on account of riches or dress. They compare both these, to paint on a warrior's face; because it incites others to a spirit of martial benevolence for their country, and pleases his own fancy, and the eyes of spectators, for a little time, but is sweated off, while he is performing his war-dances; or is defaced, by the change of weather.

They formerly wore shirts, made of drest deer-skins, for their summer visiting dress: The needles and thread they used formerly, and now at times were fish-bones, or the horns and bones of deer, rubbed sharp, and deer's sinews, and a sort of hemp, that grows among them spontaneously, in rich open lands.

The men wear, for ornament, and the conveniencies of hunting, thin deer-skin boots, well smoked, that reach so high up their thighs, as with their jackets to secure them from the brambles and braky thickets. They sew them about five inches from the edges, which are formed into toffels, to which they fasten fawns trotters, and small pieces of tinkling metal, or wild turkey-cock-spurs.

The beaus used to fasten the like to their war-pipes, with the addition of a piece of an enemy's scalp with a tuft of long hair hanging down from the middle of the stem, each of them painted red: The young Indian men and women, through a fondness of their ancient dress, wrap a piece of cloth round them, that has a near resemblance to the old Roman toga, or praetexta.

With this frantic apparel, the red heroes swaddle themselves, when they are waddling, whooping, and prancing it away, in their sweltery town-houses, or supposed synhedria, around the reputed holy fire. In a sweating condition, they will thus incommode themselves, frequently, for a whole night, on the fame principle of pride, that the grave Spaniard's winter cloak must sweat him in summer. They have a great aversion to the wearing of breeches; for to that custom, they affix the idea of helplessness, and effeminacy.

The men wear a slip of cloth, about a quarter of an ell wide, and an ell and an half long, in the lieu of breeches; which they put between their legs, and tye round their haunches, with a convenient broad bandage.

The women, since the time we first traded with them, wrap a fathom of the half breadth of Stroud cloth round their waist, and tie it with a leathern belt, which is commonly covered with brass runners or buckles: They make their shoes for common use, out of the skins of the bear and elk, well dressed and smoked, to prevent hardening; and those for ornament, out of deer-skins, done in the like manner: The men fasten several different sorts of beautiful feathers, frequently in tufts; or the wing of a red bird, or the skin of a small hawk, to a lock of hair on the crown of their heads.

And every different Indian nation when at war, trim their hair, after a different manner, through contempt of each other; thus we can distinguish an enemy in the woods, so far off as we can see him. The Indians flatten their heads, in divers forms: The Choktah Indians flatten their fore-heads, from the top of the head to the eye-brows with a small bag of sand; which gives them a hideous appearance; as the forehead naturally shoots upward, according as it is flattened: The skull resembling a fine cartilaginous substance, in its infant state, is capable of taking any impression.

By this pressure, and their thus flattening the crown of the head, they consequently make their heads thick, and their faces broad: May we not to this custom, and as a necessary effect of this cause, attribute their fickle, wild, and cruel tempers? When the brain, in cooler people, is disturbed, it neither reasons, nor determines, with proper judgment?

The Indians thus look on every thing around them, through their own false medium; and vilify our heads, because they have given a wrong turn to their own. The very remote history of all nations, is disfigured with fable, and gives but little encouragement to distant enquiry, and laborious researches. Much of the early history and antiquities of nations is lost, and some people have no records at all, and to this day are rude and uncivilized.

Yet a knowledge of them is highly interesting, and would afford amusement, and even instruction in the most polished times, to the most polite. Every science has certain principles, as its basis, from which it reasons and concludes. Mathematical theorems, and logical propositions, give clear demonstrations, and necessary conclusions: But, history, and the origin of tribes and nations, have hitherto been covered with a great deal of obscurity.

Some antient historians were ignorant; others prejudiced. Some searchers into antiquities adopted the traditional tales of their predecessors: My design is, to examine, and if possible, ascertain the genealogy and descent of the Indians, and to omit nothing that may in the least contribute to furnish the public with a full Indian System.

In tracing the origin of a people, where there are no records of any kind, either written, or engraved, who rely solely on oral tradition for the support of their antient usages, and have lost great part of them -- though the undertaking be difficult, yet where several particulars, and circumstances, strong and clear, correspond, they not only make room for conjecture, but cherish probability, and till better can be offered, must be deemed conclusive.

All the various nations of Indians, seem to be of one descent; they call a buffalo, in their various dialects, by one and the same name, "Yanasa" And there is a strong similarity of religious rites, and of civil and martial customs, among all the various American nations of Indians we have 11 have any knowledge of, on the extensive continent; as will soon be shewn. Their language is copious, and very expressive, for their narrow orbit of ideas, and full of rhetorical tropes and figures, like the orientalists.

In early times, when languages were not so copious, rhetoric was invented to supply that defect: The orator compared him to the sun, that enlightens and enlivens the whole system of created beings: They often change the sense of words into a different signification from the natural, exactly after the manner also of the orientalists.

Even, their common speech is full of it; like the prophetic writings, and the book of Job, their orations are concise, strong, and full of fire; which sufficiently confutes the wild notion which some have espoused of the North American Indians being Prae-Adamites, or a separate race of men, created for that continent What stronger circumstantial proofs can be expected, than that they, being disjoined from the rest of the world, time immemorial, and destitute also of the use of letters, should have, and still retain the ancient standard of speech, conveyed down by oral tradition from father to son, to the present generation?

Their notions of things are like ours, and their organical structure is the same. In them, the soul governs the body, according to the common laws of God in the creation of Adam. God employed six days, in creating the heavens, this earth, and the innumerable species 12 of creatures, wherewith it is so amply furnished. The works of a being, infinitely perfect, must entirely answer the design of them: But the American Indians neither vary from the rest of mankind, in their internal construction, nor external appearance, except in colour; which, as hath been shewn, is either entirely accidental, or artificial.

As the Mosaic account declares a completion of the manifestations of God's infinite wisdom and power in creation, within that space of time; it follows, that the Indians have lineally descended from Adam, the first, and the great parent of all the human species. Both the Chikkasah and Choktah Indians, call a deceitful person, Seente, a snake: Some have supposed the Americans to be descended from the Chinese: Besides, as our best ships now are almost half a year in sailing to China, or from thence to Europe; it is very unlikely they should attempt such dangerous discoveries, in early time, with their supposed small vessels, against rapid currents, and in dark and sickly monsoons; especially, as it is very probable they were unacquainted with the use of the load-stone to direct their course.

China is above eight thousand miles distant from the American continent, which is twice as far as across the Atlantic ocean. Neither could persons fail to America, from the north, by the way of Tartary, or ancient Scythia; that, from its situation, never was, or can be, a maritime power, and it is utterly impracticable for any to come to America, by sea, from that quarter.

Besides, the remaining traces of their religious ceremonies, and civil and martial customs, are quite opposite to the like vestiges of the old Scythians. Nor, even in the moderate northern climates, is to be seen the least vestige of any ancient stately buildings, or of any thick settlements, as are said to remain in the less healthy regions of Peru and Mexico.

Several of the Indian nations assure us they crossed the Missisippi, before they made their present northern settlements; which, connected with the former arguments, will sufficiently explode that weak opinion, of the American Aborigines being lineally descended from the Tartars, or ancient Scythians. It is a very difficult thing to divest ourselves, not to say, other persons, of prejudices and favourite opinions; and I expect to be censured by some, for opposing commonly received sentiments, or for meddling with a dispute agitated among the learned ever since the first discovery of America.

But, Truth is my object: As I before suggested, where we have not the light of history, or records, to guide us through the dark maze of antiquity, we must endeavour to find it out by probable arguments; and in such subjects of enquiry, where no material objections can be raised against probability, it is strongly conclusive of the truth, and nearly gives the thing sought for.

From the most exact observations I could make in the long time I traded among the Indian Americans, I was forced to believe them lineally descended from the Israelites, either while they were a maritime power, or 14 or soon after the general captivity; the latter however is the most probable.

This descent, I shall endeavour to prove from their religious rites, civil and martial customs, their marriages, funeral ceremonies, manners, language, traditions, and a variety of particulars.

Observations, 15 Observations, and arguments, in proof of the American Indians being descended from the Jews.

A Number of particulars present themselves in favour of a Jewish descent. But to form a true judgment, and draw a solid conclusion, the following arguments must not be partially separated. Let them be distinctly considered -- then unite them together, and view their force collectively.

As the Israelites were divided into Tribes, and had chiefs over them, so the Indians divide themselves: The genealogical names which they assume, are derived, either from the names of those animals, whereof the cherubim are said in revelation, to be compounded; or from such creatures as are most familiar to them. They have the families of the eagle, panther, tyger, and buffalo; the family of the bear, deer, racoon, tortoise, snake, fish; and, likewise, of the wind.

The last, if not derived from the appearance of the divine glory, as expressed by the prophet Ezekiel, may 16 be of Tyrian extraction. We are told in the fragment of Sanchoniathon, that the Tyrians worshipped fire, and the aerial wind, as goods; and that Usous, the son of Hypsouranias, built a sacred pillar to each of them: The Tyrians were the people, in early times, who, above all others, enriched themselves in the natural element of the fish.

The city of Athens was divided into ten parts, or tribes, and which the Greeks called Phule, a tribe. And writers inform us, that the East-Indian pagans have to this day tribes, or casts; and that each cast chuses a head to maintain its privileges, to promote a strict observance of their laws, and to take care that every thing be managed with proper order.

The ancient heathens mimicked a great deal of the Jewish ceremonial law. The Indians, however, bear no religious respect to the animals from which they derive the names of their tribes, but will kill any of the species, when opportunity serves. The wolf indeed, several of them do not care to meddle with, believing it unlucky to kill them; which is the sole reason that few of the Indians shoot at that creature, through a notion of spoiling their guns.

Considering the proximity of Tyre to Egypt, probably this might be a custom of Egyptian extraction; though, at the same time, they are so far from esteeming it a deity, they reckon it the most abominable quadruped of the whole creation. This may be more material than at first appears, as our natural histories tell us, that the opossum is common in other parts of the world.

Several of the old Indians assure us, they formerly reckoned it as filthy uneatable an animal, as a hog; although they confess, and we know by long observation, that, from the time our traders settled among them, they are every year more corrupt in their morals; not only in this instance of eating an impure animal, but in many other religious customs of their forefathers.

When we consider the various revolutions these unlettered savages are likely to have undergone, among themselves, through a long-forgotten measure of time; and that, probably, they have been above twenty centuries, without the use of letters to convey down their traditions, it cannot be reasonably expected they should still retain the identical names of 17 their primo-genial tribes. Their main customs corresponding with those of the Israelites, sufficiently clears the subject.

Besides, as hath been hinted, they call some of their tribes by the names of the cherubimical figures, that were carried on the four principal standards of Israel. I have observed with much inward satisfaction, the community of goods that prevailed among them, after the patriarchal manner, and that of the primitive christians; especially with those of their own tribe.

Though they are become exceedingly corrupt, in most of their ancient commendable qualities, yet they are so hospitable, kind-hearted, and free, that they would share with those of their own tribe, the last part of their provisions, even to a single ear of corn; and to others, if they called when they were eating; for they have no stated meal-time.

An open generous temper is a standing virtue among them; to be narrow-hearted, especially to those in want, or to any of their own family, is accounted a great crime, and to reflect scandal on the rest of the tribe. Such wretched misers they brand with bad characters, and with them the fate of Prometheus, to have an eagle or vulture fastened to their liver: When the Indians are travelling in their own country, they enquire for a house of their own tribe; and if there be any, they go to it, and are kindly received, though they never saw the persons before -- they eat, drink, and regale themselves, with as much freedom, as at their own tables; which is the solid ground covered with a bear-skin.

It is their usual custom to carry nothing along with them in their journies but a looking-glass, and red paint, hung to their back -- their gun and shot pouch -- or bow and quiver 18 full of barbed arrows; and, frequently, both gun and bow: Every town has a state-house, or synedrion, as the Jewish sanhedrim, where, almost every night, the head men convene about public business; or the town's-people to feast, sing, dance, and rejoice, in the divine presence, as will fully be described hereafter.

And if a stranger calls there, he is treated with the greatest civility and hearty kindness -- he is sure to find plenty of their simple home fare, and a large cane-bed covered with the softened skins of bears, or buffaloes, to sleep on. But, when his lineage is known to the people, by a stated custom, they are slow in greeting one another his relation, if he has any there, addresses him in a familiar way, invites him home, and treats him as his kinsman.

When a warrior dies a natural death, which seldom happens the wardrums, musical instruments, and all other kinds of diversion, are laid aside for the space of three days and nights. In this time of mourning for the dead, I have known some of the frolicksome young sparks to ask the name of the deceased person's tribe; and once, being told it was a racoon, the genealogical name of the family one of them scoffingly replied, "then let us away to another town, and cheer ourselves with those who have no reason to weep; for why should we make our hearts weigh heavy for an ugly, dead racoon?

By a strict, permanent, divine precept, the Hebrew nation were ordered to worship at Jerusalem, Jehovah the true and living God, and who by the Indians is stiled Yohewah; which the seventy-two interpreters, either from ignorance or superstition, have translated Adonai; and is the very same as the Greek Kurios, signifying Sir, Lord, or Master; which is commonly applied to earthly potentates, without the least signification of, or relation to, that most great and awful name, which describes the divine essence, who naturally 19 and necessarily exists of himself, without beginning or end.

The ancient heathens, it is well known, worshipped a plurality of gods -- Gods which they formed to themselves, according to their own liking, as various as the countries they inhabited, and as numerous, with some, as the days of the year. He is with them the sole author of warmth, light, and of all animal and vegetable life.

They do not pay the least perceivable adoration to any images, or to dead persons; neither to the celestial luminaries, nor evil spirits, nor any created being whatsoever. They are utter strangers to all the gestures practised by the pagans in their religious rites. They kiss no idols; nor, if they were placed out of their reach, would they kiss their hands, in token of reverence and a willing obedience. The ceremonies of the Indians in their religious worship, are more after the Mosaic institution, than of pagan imitation: There yet remain so many marks, as to enable us to trace the Hebrew extraction and rites, through all the various nations of Indians; and we may with a great deal of probability conclude, that, if any heathens accompanied them to the American world, or were settled in it before them, they became proselytes of justice, and their pagan rites and customs were swallowed up in the Jewish.

To illustrate the general subject, I shall give the Indian opinion of some of the heathen gods, contrasted with that of the pagan. The American Indians do not believe the Sun to be any bigger than it appears to the naked eye. Their philosophic system was not very dissimilar to that of the wild Americans; for Cicero tells us, Epicurus thought the sun to be less than it appeared to the eye.

And Lucretius says, Tantillus ille sol, "a diminutive thing" And, if the Israelites had not at one time thought the sun a portable god, they would not have thought of a chariot for it.

This they derived from the neighbouring heathen; for we are told, that they had an house of the sun, where they danced in honour of him, in circuits, and had consecrated spherical figures; and that they, likewise, built a temple to it; for "they purified and sanctified themselves in the gardens, behind the house, or temple of Achad" In Isa.

Most part of the old heathens adored all the celestial orbs, especially the sun; probably they first imagined its enlivening rays immediately issued from the holy fire, light, and spirit, who either resided in, or was the identical sun.

That idolatrous ceremony of the Jews, Josiah utterly abolished about years before our christian aera. The sacred text says, "He took away the horses, which the kings of Judah had given to the sun, and he burned the chariots of the sun with fire" At Rhodes, a neighbouring island to Judaea, they consecrated chariots to the sun, on account of his glorious splendour and benign qualities.

But the Indian Americans pay only a civil regard to the sun: In 2 Kings xvii. Herodotus, and other authors, are also sufficient witnesses on this point. Now, were the Amercains originally heathens, or not of Israel, when they wandered there from captivity, in quest of 21 liberty, or on any other accidental account, that vicious precedent was so well calculated for America, where every place was a thick arbour, it is very improbable they should have discontinued it: But they are the very reverse.

To commit such acts of pollution, while they are performing any of their religious ceremonies, is deemed so provoking an impiety, as to occasion even the supposed sinner to be excluded from all religious communion with the rest of the people. There is this wide difference between the impure and obscene religious ceremonies of the ancient heathens, and the yet penal, and strict purity of the natives of America.

The heathens chose such gods, as were most suitable to their inclinations, and the situation of their country. The warlike Greeks and Romans worshipped Mars the god of war; and the savage and more bloody Scythians deified the Sword. The neighbouring heathens round Judaea, each built a temple to the supposed god that presided over their land. Rimmon, was the Syrian god of pomegranates: But the red Americans firmly believe, that their war-captains, and their reputed prophets, gain success over their enemies, and bring on seasonable rains, by the immediate reflection of the divine fire, co-operating with them.

We are informed by Cicero, that the maritime Sidonians adored fishes: Ancient history informs us, that Zoroaster, who lived An. He allowed no temples, but enjoined sacrificing in the open air, and on the top of an hill. The ancient Persians kept up their reputed holy fire, without suffering it to be extinguished; which their pretended successors observe with the strictest 22 strictest devotion, and affirm it has been burning, without the least intermission, several thousand years.

But the Indian Americans are so far from the idolatry of the Sidonians, that they esteem fish only as they are useful to the support of human life; though one of their tribes is called the fish: The Indians esteem the old year's fire, as a most dangerous pollution, regarding only the supposed holy fire, which the archi-magus annually renews for the people. They pay no religious worship to stocks, or stones, after the manner of the old eastern pagans; neither do they worship any kind of images whatsoever.

And it deserves our notice, in a very particular manner, to invalidate the idle dreams of the jesuitical fry of South-America, that none of all the various nations, from Hudson's Bay to the Missisippi, has ever been known, by our trading people, to attempt to make any image of the great Divine Being, whom they worship. This is consonant to the Jewish observance of the second commandment, and directly contrary to the usage of all the ancient heathen world, who made corporeal representations of their deities -- and their conduct, is a reproach to many reputed christian temples, which are littered round with a crowd of ridiculous figures to represent God, spurious angels, pretended saints, and notable villains.

The sacred penmen, and prophane writers, assure us that the ancient heathens had lascivious gods, particularly [??? But I never heard that any of our North-American Indians had images of any kind. There is a carved human statue of wood, to which, however, they pay no religious homage: It belongs to the head war-town of the upper Muskohge country, and seems to have been originally designed to perpetuate the memory of some distinguished hero, who deserved well of his country; for, when their cusseena, or bitter, black drink is about to 23 be drank in the synedrion, they frequently, on common occasions, will bring it there, and honour it with the first conch-shell-full, by the hand of the chief religious attendant: It is observable, that the same beloved waiter, or holy attendant, and his co-adjutant, equally observe the same ceremony to every person of reputed merit, in that quadrangular place.

When I past that way, circumstances did not allow me to view this singular figure; but I am assured by several of the traders, who have frequently seen it, that the carving is modest, and very neatly finished, not unworthy of a modern civilized artist. As no body of people we are acquainted with, have, in general, so great a share of strong natural parts as those savages, we may with a great deal of probability suppose, that their tradition of the second commandment, prevented them from having one, not to say the same plentiful variety of images, or idols, as have the popish countries.

Notwithstanding they are all degenerating apace, on account of their great intercourse with foreigners, and other concurring causes; I well remember, that, in the year , one of the upper towns of the aforesaid Muskohge, was so exceedingly exasperated against some of our Chikkasah traders, for having, when in their cups, forcibly viewed the nakedness of one of their women, who was reputed to be an hermaphrodite that they were on the point of putting them to death, according to one of their old laws against crimes of that kind.

Connecting together these particulars, we can scarcely desire a stronger proof, that they have not been idolaters, since they first came to America; much less, that they erected, and worshipped any such lascivious and obscene idols, as the heathens above recited. The Sidonians and Philistines worshipped Ashtaroth, in the figure of the celestial luminaries; or, according to others, in the form of a sheep: And they reckon sheep as despicable and helpless, and apply the name to persons in that predicament, although a ram was the animal emblem of power, with the ancient eastern heathens.

The Indians sometimes call a nasty fellow, Chookphe kussooma, 24 kussoma, "a stinking sheep," and "a goat. I shall subjoin here, with regard to Ashtaroth, or Astarte, that though the ancients believed their deities to be immortal, yet they made to themselves both male and female gods, and, by that means, Astarte, and others, are of the faeminine gender.

Trismegistus too, and the Platonics, affirmed there was deus masculo-faemineus; though different sexes were needful for the procreation of human beings.

Instead of consulting such as the heathen oracles -- or the Teraphim -- the Dii Penates -- or Dii Lares, of the ancients, concerning future contingencies, the Indians only pretend to divine from their dreams; which may proceed from the tradition they still retain of the knowledge their ancestors obtained from heaven, in visions of the night, Job xxxiii.

In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, and sealeth their instruction" When we consider how well stocked with gods, all the neighbouring nations of Judaea were; especially the maritime powers, such as Tyre and Sidon, Carthage and Egypt, which continually brought home foreign gods, and entered them into their own Palladia; and that these Americans are utterly ignorant both of the gods and their worship, it proves, with sufficient evidence, that the gentlemen, who trace them from either of those states, only perplex themselves in wild theory, without entering into the merits of the question.

As the bull was the first terrestrial cherubic emblem, denoting fire, the ancient Egyptians, in length of time, worshipped Apis, Serapis, or Osiris, under the form of an ox; but, when he grew old, they drowned him, and lamented his death in a mourning habit; which occasioned a philosopher thus to jest them, Si Dii sunt, cur plangitis?

Si mortui, cur adoratis? And, if they are dead, why do you worship them? Even when Yohewah was conducting Israel in the wilderness, Aaron was forced to allow them a golden calf, according to the usage of the Egyptians: The Troglodites used to strangle their aged, with a cow's tail: The Indian Americans, on the contrary, though they derive the name of cattle from part of the divine essential name, as shall be elsewhere observed and use the name of a buffalo as a war appellative, and the name of a tribe; yet their regard to them, centres only in their usefulness for the support of human life: The superstitious heathens, whom the Hebrews called, Yedonim, pretended that the bones of those they worshipped as gods when alive, revealed both present and future things, that were otherwise concealed: But the Americans praise only the virtues of their dead, as fit copies of imitation for the living.

They firmly believe that the hand of God cuts off the days of their dead friend, by his pre-determined purpose. They are so far from deifying fellow-creatures, that they prefer none of their own people, only according to the general standard of reputed merit.

The Chinese, likewise, though they call God by the appellative, Cham Ti, and have their temples of a quadrangular form, yet they are gross idolaters; like the ancient Egyptians, instead of offering up religious oblations to the great Creator and Preserver of the universe, they pay them to the pictures of their deceased ancestors, and erect temples to them, in solitary places without their cities -- likewise to the sun, moon, planets, spirits, and inventors of arts; especially to the great Confucius, notwithstanding he strictly prohibited the like idolatrous rites.

And the religious modes of the ancient inhabitants of 26 of Niphon, or the Japanese, are nearly the same; which are diametrically opposite to the religious tenets of the wild Americans. The diviners among the Philistines pretended to foretel things, by the flying, chirping, and feeding of wild fowls. The Greeks and Romans called fowls, Nuncii Deorum. And Calchas is said to have foretold to Agamemnon, by the number of sparrows which flew before him, how many years the Trojan war should last.

The Assyrians worshipped pigeons, and bore the figure of them on their standards, as the sacred oracles shew us, where the anger of the pigeon, and the sword of the pigeon, points at the destroying sword of the Assyrians. But, though the American woods swarm with a surprizing variety of beautiful wild fowl, yet the natives do not make the least pretension to auguries. They know it is by a certain gift or instinct, inferior to human reason, that the birds have a sufficient knowledge of the seasons of the year.

I once indeed observed them to be intimidated at the voice of a small uncommon bird, when it pitched, and chirped on a tree over their war camp.

But that is the only trace of such superstition, as I can recollect among them. They esteem pigeons only as they are salutary food, and they kill the turtle-dove, though they apply it as a proper name to their female children. The Babylonians were much addicted to auguries: Those auguries always directed their conduct, in every material thing they undertook; such as the beginning and carrying on war, going a journey, marriage, and the like.

But, as we shall soon see, the Americans, when they go to war, prepare and sanctify themselves, only by fasting and ablutions, that they may not defile their supposed holy ark, and thereby incur the resentment of the Deity. And many of them firmly believe, that marriages are made above. If the Indian Americans were descended from any of the states or people above mentioned, they could not well have forgotten, much less could they have so essentially departed from their idolatrous worship.

It is hence probable, they came here, soon 27 on after the captivity, when the religion of the Hebrew nation, respecting the worship of Deity, was in its purity.

And if any of the ancient heathens came with them, they became proselytes of habitation, or justice -- hereby, their heathenish rites and ceremonies were, in process of time, intirely absorbed in the religious ceremonies of the Jews.

Had the nine tribes and half of Israel which were carried off by Shalmaneser, King of Assyria, and settled in Media, continued there long, it is very probable, that by intermarrying with the natives, and from their natural sickleness and proneness to idolatry, and the force of example, they would have adopted, and bowed before the gods of the Medes and the Assyrians, and carried them along with them.

But there is not a trace of this idolatry among the Indians. The severe afflictions they underwent in captivity, doubtless humbled their hearts, and reclaimed them from the service of the calves, and of Baalam, to the true divine worship -- a glimpse of which they still retain. And that the first settlers came to America before the destruction of the first temple, may be inferred, as it is certain both from Philo and Josephus, that the second temple had no cherubim. To reflect yet greater light on the subject, I shall here add a few observations on the Indians supposed religious cherubic emblems, the cherubimical names of their tribes, and from whence they, and the early heathens, may be supposed to have derived them.

When the goodness of Deity induced him to promise a saviour to fallen man, in paradise, he stationed flaming cherubim in the garden. The type I shall leave; but when mankind became intirely corrupt, God renewed his promise to the Israelites, and to convey to posterity the true divine worship, ordered them to fix in the tabernacle, and in Solomon's temple, cherubim, over the mercy-seat, -- the very curtains which lined the walls, and the veil of the temple, likewise, were to have those figures.

The cherubim are said to represent the names and offices of Yohewah Elohim, in redeeming lost mankind. The prophet Ezekiel has given us two draughts of the cherubim certainly not without an instructive design in his two visions, described in the first and 28 and tenth chapters. We view him seated in his triumphal chariot, and as in the midst of a formidable war camp, drawn by those four creatures, the bull, the lion, the man, and the eagle; strong and descriptive emblems of the divine essence.

What animal is equal to the bull, or ox, for strength, indefatigable service, and also for food? In eastern countries, they were always used to plough, and beat out the grain, besides other services omitted in modern times; the lion excels every other animal in courage, force, and prowess: These are the emblems of the terrestrial cherubim: The celestial cherubim were fire, light, and air, or spirit, which were typified by the bull, the lion, and the eagle.

Those divine emblems, in a long revolution of time, induced 29 induced the ancients by degrees, to divide them, and make images of the divine persons, powers, and actions, which they typified, and to esteem them gods.

They consecrated the bull's head to the fire, the lion's to light, and the eagle's to the air, which they worshipped as gods. And, in proportion as they lost the knowledge of the emblems, they multiplied and compounded their heads with those of different creatures. The Egyptians commonly put the head of a lion, hawk, or eagle, and sometimes that of a ram, or bull, to their images; some of which resembled the human body.

Their Apis, or Osiris, gave rise to Aaron's, and apostate Israel's, golden calf: Diana of Ephesus was triformis; Janus of Rome, biformis, and, sometimes, quadriformis; and Jupiter, Sol, Mercury, Proserpine, and Cerberus, were triple-headed. Hesiod tells us, the ancient heathens had no less than thirty thousand gods. It is well known that the ancient heathens, especially the Greeks and Romans, abounded with male and female deities; and commonly in human effigy. As they imagined they could not safely trust themselves to the care of any one god, they therefore chose a multiplicity.

They multiplied and changed them from childhood to old age. The Romans proceeded so far, as to make Cloacina the guardian goddess of each house-of-office.

The heathens in general, appointed one god to preside over the land, and another over the water; one for the mountains, and another for the valleys. And they were so diffident of the power of their gods, that they chose a god, or goddess, for each part of the body; contrary to the religious system of their best poets and philosophers, and that of the present savage Americans: Is it not most reasonable to suppose, that as they lost the meaning of those symbolical figures, and their 30 their archetypes, fire, light, and air, or spirit, which represented the attributes, names, and offices of Yohewah Elohim, they divided them into so many various gods, and paid them divine worship.

Yet, though the Indian Americans have the supposed cherubimical figures, in their synhedria, and, through a strong religious principle, dance there, perhaps every winter's night, always in a bowing posture, and frequently sing Halelu-Yah Yo He Wah, I could never perceive, nor be informed, that they substituted them, or the similitude of any thing whatsoever, as objects of divine adoration, in the room of the great invisible divine essence.

They use the feathers of the eagle's tail, in certain friendly and religious dances, but the whole town will contribute, to the value of deer-skins, for killing a large eagle; the bald eagle they do not esteem ; and the man also gets an honourable title for the exploit, as if he had brought in the scalp of an enemy.

Now, if they reckoned the eagle a god, they would not only refuse personal profits, and honours, to him who killed it, but assuredly inflict on him the severest punishment, for committing so atrocious and sacrilegious an act.

I have seen in several of the Indian synhedria, two white painted eagles carved out of poplar wood, with their wings stretched out, and raised five feet off the ground, standing at the corner, close to their red and white imperial seats: And this opinion is corroborated by an established custom, both religious and martial, among them, which obliges them to paint those sacred emblems anew, at the first fruit-offering, or the annual expiation of sins.

Now 31 Now we know it was an usual custom with the eastern nations, to affix horns to their gods. The Sidonian goddess Ashtaroth was horned: And this metaphor, of a horn, is commonly so used, through all the divine registers, multiplying the number of horns of the object they are describing, to denote its various, great, and perfect power; unless where seven is mentioned as a number of perfection, as in St.

John's figurative, magnificent, and sublime description of Christ. That the Indians derived those symbolical representations from the compounded figures of the cherubim, seems yet more clear, from the present cherubic names of their tribes, and the pre-eminence they formerly bore over the rest.

At present, indeed, the most numerous tribe commonly bears the highest command; yet their old warriors assure us, it was not so even within their own remembrance. The title of the old beloved men, or archi-magi, is still hereditary in the panther, or tyger family: As North-America breeds no lions, the panther,of any animal it contains, is the nearest emblem of it.

Their eagle and buffalo tribes resemble two other cherubic names or emblems. Near to the red and white imperial seats, they have the representation of a full moon, and either a half moon, or a breast-plate, raised five or six feet high at the front of the broad seats, and painted with chalky clay; sometimes black paintings are intermixed.

But, let it be noticed, that in the time 32 time of their most religious exercises, or their other friendly rejoicings there, they do not pay the least adoration to any of those expressive emblems; nor seem to take any notice of them: Hence one would conclude, that they not only brought with them the letter, but the meaning of those reputed cherubimical figures, which were designed to represent the inseparable attributes of Yohewah.

It is universally agreed, by the christian world, that every religious observance of the ancient heathens, which the Mosaic law approved of, was at first derived from divine appointment; and as we are assured in the first pages of the sacred oracles, concerning Cain, Gen.

We may, therefore, reasonably conclude, from the various gods, and religious worship of the ancient heathens, and from the remaining divine emblems, and family names of the Indian Americans, that the former deduced those emblems they deifyed, from the compounded cherubim in paradise: All the nations of Indians are exceedingly intoxicated with religious pride, and have an inexpressible contempt of the white people, unless we except those half-savage Europeans, who are become their proselytes.

Nothings is the most favourable name they give us, in their set speeches: When the archi-magus, or any one of their magi, is persuading the people, at their religious solemnities to a strict observance of the old beloved, or divine speech, he always calls them, "The beloved," or holy people, agreeable to the Hebrew epithet, Ammi, during the theocracy of Israel: Then, he flourishes on their beloved land that flowed with milk and honey, telling them they had good, and the best things in the greatest plenty: I have heard the speaker, on these occasions, after quoting the war actions of their distinguished chieftains, who fell in battle, urging them as a copy of imitation to the living -- assure the audience, that such a death, in defence of their beloved land, and beloved things, was far preferable to some of their living pictures, that were only spending a dying life, to the shame and danger of the society, and of all their beloved things, while the others died by their virtue, and still continue a living copy.

They frequently say, "Such a one was weighed on the path, and made to be light;" ascribing life and death to God's unerring and particular providence; which may be derived from a religious opinion, and proverb of the Hebrews, that "the divine care extended itself, from the horns of the unicorn, to the very feet of the lice" And the more refined part of the old heathens believed the like.

The ancient Greeks and Romans, who were great copiers of 34 of the rites and customs of the Jews, believed there were three destinies who presided over human life, and had each of them their particular office; one held the distaff of life, while another spun the thread, and Atropos cut it off: When Virgil is praising the extraordinary virtue of Ripheus, who was killed in defence of his native city, Troy, he adds, Diis aliter visum est, -- submitting to the good and wise providence of the gods, who thought fit to call him off the stage.

On their principle, self-murder would be a necessary act of a passive being set on work by the first mover; and his obligations would be proportionable, only to his powers and faculties; which would excuse the supposed criminal from any just future punishment for suicide. But religion, and true reason, deny the premises, and they themselves will not own the consequence. It is their opinion of the THEOCRACY, or, that God chose them out of all the rest of mankind, as his peculiar and beloved people, -- which animates both the white Jew, and the red American, with that steady hatred against all the world, except themselves, and renders them hated or despised by all.

The obstinacy of the former, in shutting their eyes against the sacred oracles, which are very explicit and clear in the original text, and of which they were the trustees, incites both our pity and reproof; whereas the others firm adherence to, and strong retention of, the rites and customs of their forefathers, only attract our admiration.

The American Indians are so far from being Atheists, as some godless Europeans have flattered themselves, to excuse their own infidelity, that they have the great sacred name of God, that describes his divine essence, and by 35 by which he manifested himself to Moses -- and are firmly persuaded they now live under the immediate government of the Deity. The ascension of the smoke of their victim, as a sweet favour to Yohewah, of which hereafter is a full proof to the contrary, as also that they worship God, in a smoke and cloud, believing him to reside above the clouds, and in the element of the, supposed, holy annual fire.

It is no way material to fix any certain place for the residence of Him, who is omnipresent, and who sustains every system of beings. It is not essential to future happiness, whether we believe his chief place of abode is in caelo tertio, paradiso terrestri, or elemento ignea. God hath placed conscience in us for a monitor, witness, and judge. If any farther knowledge was required, it would be revealed; but St.

Paul studiously conceals the mysteries he saw in the empyreal heavens. The place of the divine residence is commonly said to be above the clouds; but that is because of the distance of the place, as well as our utter ignorance of the nature of Elohim's existence, the omnipresent spirit of the universe.

Our finite minds cannot comprehend a being who is infinite. This inscrutable labyrinth occasioned Simonides, a discreet heathen poet and philosopher, to request Hiero, King of Sicily, for several days successively, to grant him a longer time to describe the nature of the Deity; and, at the end, to confess ingenuously, that the farther he waded in that deep mystery, the more he sunk out of his depth, and was less able to define it.

If we trace Indian antiquities ever so far, we shall find that not one of them ever retained, or imbibed, atheistical principles, except such whose interest as to futurity it notoriously appeared to be -- whose practices made them tremble whenever they thought of a just and avenging God: And this all nature proclaims in every part of the universe.

We have abundant evidence of the Jews believing in the ministration of angels, during the Old-Testament dispensation; their frequent appearances, and their services, on earth, are recorded in the oracles, which the Jews themselves receive as given by divine inspiration. Paul in his epistle 36 epistle addressed to the Hebrews, speaks of it as their general opinion, that "Angels are ministring spirits to the good and righteous on earth" And that it was the sentiment of those Jews who embraced christianity, is evident from Acts xii.

The Indian sentiments and traditions are the same. As they believe in God, so they firmly believe that there is a class of higher beings than men, and a future state and existence. There are not greater bigots in Europe, nor persons more superstitious, than the Indians, especially the women concerning the power of witches, wizards, and evil spirits. It is the chief subject of their idle winter night's chat: They will affirm that they have seen, and distinctly, most surprizing apparitions, and heard horrid shrieking noises.

They pretend, it was impossible for all their senses to be deluded at the same time; especially at Okmulge, the old waste town, belonging to the Muskohge, miles S. They strenuously aver, that when necessity forces them to encamp there, they always hear, at the dawn of the morning, the usual noise of Indians singing their joyful religious notes, and dancing, as if going down to the river to purify themselves, and then returning to the old townhouse: Maybe everyone requires accommodation Need to hold marines back for airborne advance Need to keep up with the Need to love construed with classical words of hope for the future Need to make a difference Need to pay Need to reimburse Need to return small energy unit Needed a bath Needed a chiropractor, sa Needed a doctor Needed a massage, maybe Needed fixing, as a fauce Needed liniment Needed more Needed pole to be replaced in a selected position Needed smelling salts Needed things Needed to relax and unwin Needed to say "Oops" Needful Needful and correct rules hard to follow Neediest cases site?: Abb Needing a bath badly Needing a doctor's attent Needing a good brushing, Needing a lift Needing a lift?

Needing a loan Needing a massage, say Needing a match Needing a pat on the back Needing a place to go, fellow's withdrawn Needing a rinse Needing a seat belt exten Needing air freshener Needing bleach, say Needing buoying Needing darning, maybe Needing directions Needing directions, say Needing Dramamine, maybe Needing hospital care Needing irrigation Needing kneading? Needing liniment Needing no invitation Needing no script Needing nourishment Needing overtime Needing patches Needing shampoo, say Needing some kneading?

Needing some sun Needing straightening Needing to be brief, Premiership players ring supervisors Needing to be cracked?

Needing to be slapped down? Needing to cool down, may Needing to cut down Needing to drink Needing to get keyed up? Needle problem Needle slowing jabs up in arms Needle work? Needle, for short Needle, informally Needle, perhaps Needle, say, reversed to make lace Needle-leafed tree Needle-nosed fish Needle-shaped Needlecase Needlefish Needlepoint Needlepoint? Needs a bib Needs a ring? Needs a washer, possibly Needs airing out, maybe Needs medicine Needs no more work Needs to roll over, perha Needy Needy - secured Needy people?

Negative joiner Negative north of England Negative particle Negative particles Negative principle Negative reaction Negative reply Negative response three out of four bridge players doubled is rubbish Negative side Negative sign Negative sort of person Negative utterance varied amid hundred of wandering types Negative vote Negative votes Negative word Negatively Negatively charged partic Negatives Negev native, e.

Neglect Neglect an opportunity Neglect odd parts of poem, lines showing blunder with words Neglect of French entertainer heartless Neglect to finish touring Dixie? Neglect trendy guy concealing last of horrible fat Neglect your garden plants? Not on the surface Neglect, abandonment Neglect, omit Neglected Neglected child Neglected her, in comparison to hero? Neglected in spite of Newton embracing traditional learning endlessly Neglected neighborhood Neglected neighborhoods Neglected, as beds Neglectful Neglects to put down "Best Wishes" Negligee jacket Negligee material Negligent Negligent about girl Negligent one working for reduction of sentence Negligent, does not have to be heard Negligible Negligible reason not to honour cheque?

Negotiate Negotiate difficult terrain in the East continually Negotiate over price Negotiate to reach an agreement Negotiate, as a loan Negotiated cut round line Negotiated deal cutting extra deductions Negotiating in a no-nonse Negotiating partner of Is Negotiation between prosecutor and defendant Negotiation goal Negotiation result Negotiation's end Negotiations of Negotiations outcome Negotiator at Vladivostok Negotiator obtained when mad pilot goes berserk Negotiator with G.

Negotiator's outrageous d Negotiator's refusal Negotiator: Neighbor of Albion Neighbor of Alg. Neighbor of Arizona Neighbor of Ark. Neighbor of Azerbaijan Neighbor of B. Neighbor of Britannia Neighbor of Bulg. Neighbor of Homer, and ot Neighbor of Hung. Neighbor of Irkutsk on a Neighbor of Isr. Neighbor of Kaliningrad Neighbor of Kan. Neighbor of Kuwait Neighbor of Ky. Neighbor of Lanai Neighbor of Leb. Kitts Neighbor of St. Pete Neighbor of Sudan Neighbor of Sudan: Neighbor of Telescopium Neighbor of Tenn.

Neither freshwater nor ma Neither good nor bad Neither here nor there Neither here nor there, s Neither here nor there? Neither high nor low Neither hor. Neither large- nor small- Neither liberal nor conse Neither male nor female Neither masc.

Neither more nor less, in Neither nails it nor blow Neither of half-cut dons nursed regrets at first Neither partner's masculine - largely typical Neither Rep. Nematodes' piercing mouth Nemeses Nemesis Nemo, e. Neo, for one Neoclassic style Neoclassical building on the Thames by Waterloo Bridge - shooter sues me Neoclassicist who painted Neolith or paleolith Neolith, e.

Neptunians and others Nerd Nerd heads for dictionary with competition coming up Nerd identifier 1 Nerd identifier 2 Nerd identifier 3 Nerd you and I must get in the sack after some gyrating Nerd's essence? On the contrary Nerdy letterhead redesigned in compassionate style Nerdy sort Nerdy, socially inept Nereid sister of Galatea Nereids' locales Nereus and Proteus Nerf ball, e.

Nero's tutor Nero, e. Nerva's successor Nerve Nerve appendage Nerve cell Nerve cell appendages Nerve cell projection Nerve ending Nerve ending on the tongue Nerve fibers Nerve impulse transmitter Nerve material? Nerve network Nerve opening? Nervous or silly laughter Nervous participant sympathetically covered Nervous performing at the Fringe? Nervous, tense Nervous, timid Nervous, with "up" Nervously excited Nervously excited wife breaks into a laugh Nervously go in a wood Nervously irritable Nervousness Nervousness, timidity Nervy Nervy drunkard may get this, if woken too soon Ness and others Ness and Tay Ness et al.

Ness of "The Untouchables Ness, e. Nest egg for old age, in Nest egg letters Nest egg option, briefly Nest egg protectors Nest egg protectors? Nest egg, for short Nest egg, of a sort: Abbr Nest eggs abbr. Nest eggs for seniors: Net curtains must be foremost source of risk Net feat Net gain from trawling? Net rival Net sales Net sales? Net search engine finding part of a bird's anatomy Net supporter Net used in a car Net worth Net-surfer Net-surfer's stop Netanyahu of Israel Netanyahu's land: Netanyahu's predecessor Netanyahu's predecessor a Netanyahu's successor Netanyahu's successor, 19 Netanyahu, informally Netcom competitor Netflix mailing Netflix movie Netflix offering Netflix rental Neth.

Netting site Nettle Nettle rash at first seen on priest from the east Nettle sting I regularly scrat, removing top Nettle tea ruined by stirring centrally over time Nettled Nettled, with "off" Nettles Nettlesome person Network Network with Network about to go down?

That requires advanced course Network based in D. Network intersection Network of "Lost" Network of fine threads Network provider? Networking site where popular snappers primarily tag stuff Networks, e. Neurological disorder Neurological problem Neurologist Neurologist or orthopedis Neurologist's tool, for s Neurology, oncology, card Neuron part Neuron's tips?

Never before seen Never broadcast Never cut off Never ever Never flipping attempt a return to this planet! Never getting off one's d Never gone Never growing old Never having heard "Peer Never idle Never let backs go round the team Never mind! Never used Never vandalised loo ninety-four! Never wrapping up Never!

Never-ending story Never-ending story by monarch giving speech Never-ending, old-style Never-failing Never-never land Never-ratified cold war a Never-ratified women-rela Never: Neverending, once Neverland resident 2 wds. Nevertheless Nevertheless 2 wds. New bistro opening in large city New blade flipped in deception's getting sharper New blue lamp? I don't fancy shade on top New boy dips into illicit money, a career-ending moment New Boy Scout New boy?

New brew in drink certainly secured New Brunswick's river New business involving fabulous sheep? New cars of '64 New cars of New cartels in the red? New citizen, perhaps New classes seeing how films are recorded New climb beginning New coin New coins New cold ales inappropriately described, I suggest? New colonist New colour walls intense New concoction of some lingo?

New copy of an old book New corp. New Deal letters New Deal org. New Deal power project: A New Deal pres. New Deal program inits. New Deal program, for sho New Deal program: New Delhi native New deli sold a pork pie New doctor New driver's hurdle New driver, maybe New driver, often New driver, typically New driver, usually New drivers, usually New energy has died after artist leaves the planet New Eng.

New England state New England state sch. New grandparent, often New growth New growth had damaged idol New guest Her Maj upset, giving the fingers? Percy worked with another boy to put into code New inn tests alarm in Covent Garden street New issuances, for short New issue on Wall St.

New leg added to stump New linen hat worn by a man New Look designer New look for composer New master and merchant New member of la familia New Mexican, e. New moon, for one New moon? On reflection, you see Altair regularly with one eye New N. It goes back some way New newt New newts New notice at canal indicating expanse of water New novel about one old music maker New number underground New old man? New record releases with something for the Scottish market New recruit New recruits stationed initially between choppy Nile and another river New relationship originally developing New rendering New reverend returning to run what ministers do New revolutionary leader surrounds city New ringtone is a gas!

New series about university in supply again New setter's joining Times, a selfish sort? New shirt got discarded outside? That's improvident New shoots New sketch made by artist cutting coloured paper New soldier New sort of book New South Wales capital New specification New spouse's acquisitions New stable arrival New staffer New staging of an old play New stars never cross New stock issuances, for New student - more impudent New student giving more cheek New student in resort finds means of getting up to date New student, person who's bound to return with that woman New stuff brought into important US state New stylings New suits Charlie leaves for groups of people New tails jaunty editor wore as experiment New Test.

New Testament writing New threat involving English playhouse New throne for queen, perhaps New trouble for one that held Jesus' hand? New umpire - he covers a wicket that's important New uni lecturer told story about fine I revoked New uranium crystal involved in fission or fusion New US prisons with new configuration gain distinction New varsity team member, New version of a song, ma New voters, often New walker New Wave singer Lovich New wine has an obligation to smell New wing New wings New women's bra: New worker New World abbr.

New Yorker's ticked off current score New Zealand: Prefix New; book Newark time zone abbr. Newbies Newbies are often directe Newborn Newborn birds, e. Newborn child, for one Newborn infant Newborn Newfoundland Newborn on a ranch Newborn puppies enjoy the Newborn's bed Newborn's paraphernalia Newborn's place Newborns in stable condit Newcastle area of the country?

Not right at first to be nervy Newcastle Browns, e. Newcastle-upon-Tyne native Newcomer timing mare running without tail Newcomer, briefly Newcomer, novice Newer Newer software, perhaps Newer type of music by old rock and roller showed passion Newer, as a car Newest Newfangled Newfoundland's capital Newly Newly appointed Newly christen Newly developed, as techn Newly established business Newly evidenced, paid?

Newly fashioned Newly formed Newly made Newly minted money Newly out? Jou News groups News handout of journalists' redundancy News hardest to broadcast, pleasingly brief News head News host, e. News report News Romney spread about Clinton for Trump? News satire source, brief News segment News show assemblage News source News source beginning in News source of old News source, for short News sources News squib News staffers, for short News story News subject News subjects News summaries News the teacher would welcome in any form?

Newsgroup messages Newshawk's asset? Newspaper article occupies retired collier Newspaper article twice backed setter? Newspaper attention-gette Newspaper bigwigs Newspaper bill?

Newspaper boss comes in to try uplifting Greek dish Newspaper bosses Newspaper carrier, at tim Newspaper circulation uni Newspaper column separato Newspaper columnist Goodm Newspaper columnist Kupci Newspaper cost going through the roof Newspaper customers Newspaper cutting includes brief summary Newspaper department Newspaper div.

Newspaper editor Bradlee Newspaper editor forced out Newspaper editor originally employed in cricket side frequently Newspaper editor reflected Newspaper employee Newspaper essay Newspaper feature Newspaper format Newspaper founded in Newspaper full of gossip Newspaper head Newspaper income source Newspaper issue Newspaper man's recollected it: Newspaper reviewers write so seriously? Newspaper room Newspaper section Newspaper section chief Newspaper section that co Newspaper section, with " Newspaper staffers, for s Newspaper staffers, in br Newspaper starting in Newspaper story Newspaper supplement Newspaper supply Newspaper unit Newspaper units: Newspapers collectively Newspapers ditch leader to cover ultimate issues Newspapers, collectively Newspapers, TV, etc.

Newt-like amphibian Newton alternative Newton fraction Newton of the N. Next in the order Next of kin perhaps snared in Madrid will be back Next R. They couldn't be further away from it Next Thursday finish, closing early Next time Next to Next to - alien dogs Next to - compared with Next to best idea volunteers ignored Next to Connecticut Avenu Next to motorway, get hurt flying drone Next to nothing?

Nice article about sex for couple Nice article set off sparks Nice attraction Nice cop Nice cop admitted to back trouble Nice cop? Nice dame I put out is a really cool woman Nice enough fellow Nice evening Nice farewell? Nice fee R Burton negotiated for film Nice figure Nice for one to get stuff in order again Nice girl follows directions, hosting morning with her kin Nice girl? Nice girls Nice grocer's offloading water on a huge scale Nice guy Nice here in the navy, getting some killer protein!

Nice inn over in Germany? Time to go round it! Nice jacket material Nice kind of workweek Nice lad struggling with it getting no different Nice lady stripped the first guy to come along Nice language clubs in action abroad Nice location Nice look? Nice notion Nice notions Nice of Mike to visit area in East End of London - it makes one humble Nice old leader is upset, having to entertain a jerk Nice one Nice one modelled after work with no rivals Nice people collect them Nice person beyond doubt, cares a lot at first … Nice place Nice place for studying?

Nice response Nice setter entertains a new girl Nice solvers hug Arachne on edges of Edmonton Green Nice tasting bit of pork's spoken about Nice tax Nice thing to cut through Nice thing to do peaceful Nice things to look at Nice through and through Nice times with Australian, involved in swimming etc Nice to look at Nice to nosh Nice to wear Nice touch Nice touch from Roger Dal Nice track, spin around at ease?

Nice view Nice warm days? Niche publication's excellent coverage of Australia and New Zealand Niche sex that is banned Niche, alcove Niche, hollow in a wall Nicholas and Ivan, e. Nick has an ambition to succeed in football Nick in place departs as promised Nick is fit Nick loses head a little bit Nick loses head in the sack - that's messed up Nick name?

Nick, say Nickel Nickel and dime Nickel and dime in gaming Nickel in a pocket, say? Nickel or copper, but not Nickel or dime Nickel, but not dime Nickel, e. Nickname Nickname aboard Apollo 1 Nickname among major-leag Nickname for 6 on the Si Nickname for a 6-foot Nickname for a big dog Nickname for a bodybuilde Nickname for a cheater in Nickname for a dwarfish p Nickname for a good kisse Nickname for a good ol' b Nickname for a gym rat Nickname for a kvetch mav Nickname for a little guy Nickname for a Manhattan Nickname for a namesake o Nickname for a noted L.

Nigeria's largest city Nigerian capital Nigerian capital before A Nigerian city Nigerian city and port Nigerian currency Nigerian currency unit Nigerian export Nigerian language Nigerian monetary unit Nigerian native Nigerian native or langua Nigerian natives Nigerian novelist Chinua Nigerian people Nigerian regularly visited Bilbao Nigerian tribesman Nigerian-born pop star Nigerian-born singer with Nigerian-born singing sta Niggling Niggling criticism Nigh Night "Dallas" was on: Night club Night club looked black?

Not the usual hue Night cover Night crawler Night crier Night deposit? Abbr Night school subj. Night sky feature Night sound Night spot Night spot? Night stalker Night stand leader?

Night watcher Night watchmen? That's an unknown quantity Nightmarish boss Nightmarish males occupying certain cubicles Nightmarish street Nightmarish street, in fi Nights before Nights before holidays Nights of joiners in house not for refurbishment Nightshade family plant Nightspot Nightspots where the attr Nightstand spot Nightstick?

Nighttime advertising sig Nighttime assignment, oft Nighttime attire Nighttime biter Nighttime inspection Nighttime jockey's gear? Nighttime noisemaker Nighttime scavenger, info Nighttime twinkler Nighttime view Nighttime vision Nightwear Nightwear, briefly Nightwear, for short Nihilistic 20th-century European art movement Nike alternative Nike competitor Nike logo Nike rival Nike's swoosh, e.

Nike's swoosh, for one Nike, e. Nine inches Nine Muses after dieting? Ninth month with sci-fi film group Ninth mos. Ninth planet no more Ninth successor of St. Ninth-century founder of Ninth-century Saxon king Ninth-inning excitement, Ninth-inning hurler, ofte Ninth-inning pitcher Ninth-inning relief pitch Ninth-largest body known Niobe, e. Nip Nip before a tuck?

Nip or nipper Nip round between times Nip round, meeting merry king for a drink Nipped Nipped and tucked Nipped, with "out" Nipper Nipper moved prince Nipper picked up poems and scanned lines Nipper the dog's company Nipper's "master" Nipper's co. Nipper's letters Nipple seized by nippers almost last to appreciate a close encounter Nips Nips and tucks Nirvana Nirvana attainer Nirvana seeker Nirvana seekers Nirvana single's featured in show Nirvana, essentially?

Nissan model Nissan offering Nissan S. Nitpicky person Nitrates Nitre treated like nitrogen Nitrogen affected sound of handset Nitrogen compound Nitrogen compounds Nitrogen does spread over tops of underground lumps - these?

Nitrogen's lack Nitroglycerin or dynamite Nitrous oxide, e. Nitwits Niuewpoort's river Nix Nix from Nixon, e. Nix, presidentially Nixed Nixed by Nixon, e. Ab Nixon staffer G. No 1 left island town No 1 sign diet at fault? No agreement in a tight corner? No aliens could get near them No amateur No angel No Apple product No backbreaker No bad feeling after abandoning one aristocrat No bail out for Britain?

No bananas for homeless person No behind-the-back critic No being cryptic and causing problems! No big babies No big thing No bigot No bother No boy demands silly Victorian book No brainiac No brave supplier of witticism will get punishment No bright bovine?

No brother or sister mounting this buffalo No bruiser No car in a scrapyard has instruments inside No case for gun to change No celibate, he No challenge No chance at all! No chance of dessert? No change in gland No change with this, as bird beset by plague No charge for accommodation on island No charge for this on iTunes, unlimited or otherwise No Child Left Behind dept No children's viewing No choice for this holiday destination? No clarity of line in swimmer's initial stroke No college boy's beaten an average player No colour match?

No common ground - it's elementary No Conservative to stop slide No contemporary writing about this period No contests No cost in going round lakeside location No couch potato No couch potato, him No damage around house No dance clue No dessert for a dieter No dessert for dieters No dieting is ordered for dyspepsia No difficulty in this riddle, initially?

No exemplar of erudition No exemplar of grace No expert No expression of doubt in song having no feelings No extras No family fare No fan of Pizarro, certai No fancy threads No female to worry over contrary men, period!

No follower No fond feeling No food in her cupboard? No good interrupting angry person without courtesy No good line occupying discussion - that's characteristic of the English? That is it No introduction needed for elite competitors No introduction of an extra burden No lack of self-confidenc No lager drunk by northern chap No later than No later than, briefly No later than, informally No laughing matter No layabout No less than No lieutenant yet: No light opinion formed by the critical No light reading No limits to crime in island resort No longer a minor No longer a slave No longer able to shoot No longer active: No longer an option No longer anchored No longer around No longer asleep No longer asleep — needing a wash?

No longer bothered by No longer bound after one has a change of heart No longer bright No longer bright, as colo No longer carry No longer carry Folgers o No longer carrying curren No longer charged No longer chic No longer chilling in working environment No longer cool No longer dirt No longer disturbed by No longer divided No longer doing the job?: No longer done No longer drunk?

No longer edible No longer excited No longer fashionable No longer fashionable attorney bloke No longer fast No longer feeding, as a p No longer fresh No longer gloomy No longer green No longer hot No longer hungry No longer in No longer in bed No longer in effect No longer in enemy hands No longer in fashion No longer in first place No longer in nappies No longer in service No longer in style No longer in the closet No longer in the groove musically and not to be talked about No longer in the land of Nod No longer in the service: No longer in the U.

No longer in use No longer in vogue No longer in work No longer ineffable No longer insure No longer interested in No longer is No longer is embraced by a husband - extremely tearful? No longer legal No longer living No longer mended? No longer mint No longer mint, in a way No longer moved by No longer nurses No longer on active duty: No longer on deck No longer on deck?

No longer on the bottle No longer on the plate No longer on vacation No longer operative No longer outstanding, in No longer pale No longer plentiful, for instance No longer pristine No longer producing No longer pure No longer reliant on moth No longer secret No longer sharp No longer shrink-wrapped No longer sick No longer speaking, after No longer sponsored No longer standing No longer stops?

No longer stuck on No longer stylish No longer take it No longer taking exercise, one in depression needed to get fit No longer the same No longer thinking about No longer under No longer under considera No longer used No longer used: No longer valid No longer vivid No longer waiting on the No longer warm No longer wild No longer with us No longer work No longer working No longer working for the No longer working, went upstairs No longer working: No more credit to do minimal business?

No more jokes after this, said to be the longest? No more room on satellite? It happens every month No more sex, being thus? No more stars twinkling for those who watch at night No more than No more than a drop No more than half the air temperature No more work for retail outlet No mountains are this colour No Mr.

No one needing meat around before one gets rice dish No one remaining hairy in sports? Be careful what you say! Large number taken back No opening in crowd to hurry No opening to suggest some light work should arrive here No Oscar contender No particular interest about African country No particular place in It No party suggested one must accept an unpalatable solution No peace till one's buried No performers are found h No permission for recesses No person No philanthropist No pieces of cake No place for a base, in b No place for a big rig No place for a draft dodg No place for a lady No place for a neatnik No place for a rig No place for an epicure No place for skirts No place in church to carry a retracted blade?

No place to overlook special symbols No plan to stop big player in games No point to ripped Levi jeans, they can be chucked No points awarded to amateur coming back for old elephant No posh hotel No posh hotels No praises No pressure No pressure for clemency after PM gets winning margin No pressure to maintain large part of boat No prize? No quick reads No quick trip around the No racer No rara avis means to inject fluid! No record in little jotter No regal residence No regret for Piaf in smearing of alto from 1 down, say?

No room here to live with those people over 50, right? A terrible b-blunder No score No Scottish company meeting with setback in the main No short story No short time No show flat? No shrimp No slowpoke No sluggard: No stranger to the slopes No string bean No strong material to go to court after position upheld No substance in pious charity songs like Millennium Prayer?

No surprise outcomes No sweat with this dance No talking in Hanover Square No tears from tenants living thus? No thugs No time at all No time for fat girl No time for fear? No time for headdress in town No time for homely fashions No Tony nominee, surely No tough opponent No trace found at sea, conversely No trouble No tucking into fatty birds from Italy No typical stock trader No vegetarian warder No visible means of suppo No vote No voter No walk in the park No way alcoholic drink is a remedy against ills No way at first for nasty types to be executed, no date being fixed No way booze is remedy against ills No way drink is medicine!

No way hiding, ready for quick thrust No way to kill yen for travelling No way will my relatives be crying here? No wear for waifs No Westminster contender No wet brambles No wild enthusiasm amongst sailors for Vlad?

No-nonsense No-nonsense cry No-nonsense northern relation lost in York perhaps No-nos No-nos in many hotels No-parking zone No-pressure friendly for supporter No-see-um No-see-ums No-show No-show's score No-show's test score No-smoking ordinance, e. No-waist dresses No-win situation No-win situation involving black neighbour of Black Beauty?

Nobel's birthplace Nobel, e. A Nobleman accompanies girl soldiers to see civic official Nobleman after a banquet? Nobleman briefly getting attention Nobleman covered in pearls Nobleman expected to receive his king Nobleman expected to throttle King Nobleman from Balmoral or Dinnet? Nobleman given award for making part of organ Nobleman has yen to leave before time Nobleman upset Liberal? That's funny Nobleman with award finds place to hang decoration Nobleman years ahead of his time?

Nobleman's title Nobleman, originally Irish, is in Paris — first to arrive? Rotten to the core! Nocturnal animals of the Nocturnal beetle Nocturnal bird Nocturnal birds Nocturnal birds liable to Nocturnal bloodsucker Nocturnal cycle occurrenc Nocturnal feline Nocturnal fledgling Nocturnal hooters?

Noddle Nods Nods off Nods, perhaps Nodule Nodule I fitted in plastic connector Noel Noel opener Noel staple Noel starter Noel syllables Noel who played Lois Lane Noel, Yule Noes Nog ingredient Nog ingredient, maybe Nogales "now" Nogales nosh Noggin Noggin tops Noggin, in Nantes Noggins Nogoodniks Noirish Noise Noise a pig makes Noise after lightning Noise at a street protest Noise at night Noise from a fan Noise from pond life - die Noise in a comic book gun Noise made by bird quietly in its home Noise made by middle parts of mosques' swivel-chairs Noise made by my body Noise of an explosion Noise of chaps making appearance Noise of crazy pub still poses challenge Noise of fast light steps Noise of the lambs Noise of train overheard by coastal resident Noise pollution Noise that Emily Post wou Noise used to attract someone's attention privately Noiseless Noises from 19th group back?

Noises from a county fair Noises from a rattletrap Noisily disputed wrong figure in bill Noisily drink up, touring a camp Noisome Noisome noise Noisome smell Noisy Noisy and unruly Noisy argument raging nearby Noisy bed-partner Noisy bird Noisy bird — sort of spaniel as well, some say Noisy birds Noisy bug Noisy but comfy chair Noisy celebrant Noisy celebration Noisy city transports Noisy commotion Noisy complaint Noisy counters Noisy cutter Noisy disturbance Noisy entertainment Noisy fan Noisy fight Noisy fights Noisy flier Noisy groups Noisy insect Noisy lot dispute "offside" Noisy lover is briefly on top, then on back Noisy one in the morning Noisy opposition Noisy outburst Noisy party Noisy protest extremely unchristian - head dished out a hundred lines Noisy public fight Noisy public speaker Noisy publicity Noisy quarrel Noisy reception Noisy reception when queen pays a visit?

Dylan to cut LP by 22 across Non-alcoholic drink Non-bear bear Non-believer Non-believer in force led one to change direction Non-choice for restaurant Non-clergy Non-clerical people Non-coffee order at Starb Non-competitive match Non-defeatist declaration Non-drinker Non-earthling Non-earthlings, briefly Non-earthlings, for short Non-existent location Non-fiction books let me think he's useful in many ways Non-fliers, holding US wheel-protector back, honourably discharged Non-head of state who add Non-illuminated bend up front leads to the opposite Non-interventionist passes away Non-Jews Non-mainstream believer Non-meat-eater Non-metallic element, S Non-oil painting method Non-P.

Non-professional Non-professional swimmer lacks training Non-professionals Non-rigid airship deficient in breadth Non-Rx Non-science subjects Non-scientific studies Non-standard system of lines: Non-verbal indications of assent Non-woody plants shoot in this place Nonabrasive Nonabrasive leather Nonacademic degree Nonacademic school activi Nonagenarian's age Nonagonal Nonalcoholic beer brand Nonaligned nations, e.

Noncitizen Nonclerical Noncom naval personnel Noncombat area, for short Noncombatant Noncommissioned army officer Noncommissioned officer Noncommittal agreement Noncommittal answer Noncommittal reply Noncommittal response Noncommittal suffix Noncommittal words Noncompromiser Nonconformist Nonconformist church raised cross - what's the point?

Nonconformist faction Nonconformist lamenting order Nonconformist setter twice rejected by The Scotsman Nonconformist spy? Nonconformists Nondairy milk source Nondairy spread Nondairy spreads Nondairy topping Nondefensive military mov Nondemocratic rule Nondescript Nondiverse kind of farmin Nondrinker Nondrinker by law None left?

I agree None of it is good, it's said None of that? None of the above None of the above, on a s None the worse for the or None the worse for wear, None too brainy None too bright None too challenging cour None too happy None too smart None too soon None too swift None-too-gentle landing None-too-subtle encourage Nonentity Nonessential Nonet of black squares in Nonetheless Nonetheless, for short Nonets Nonexclusive Nonexistent Nonexistent, in Nantes Nonfiction author Nonfiction films, for sho Nonfielding A.

Nonhuman co-hosts of TV's Nonhuman part of a cyborg Nonintellectual Nonkosher diner offerings Nonkosher food Nonkosher lunch Nonkosher sandwiches Nonlearner, proverbially Nonlethal firearm Nonlethal weapon Nonlibrary reading Nonliquid state Nonliteral humor Nonmatching item, maybe Nonmechanized weapon Nonmember Nonmember of a union: Nonsense to have gold brought back from somewhere in Indonesia Nonsense word repeated in Nonsense word said while Nonsense writer without the polish?

Nonsense written about hotel party Nonsense! This race isn't so hairy! Nonstick spray Nonstop Nonstop connection Nonstop round-the-clock, Nonstudio broadcasts Nonstudio film Nonsurfer at the beach Nontheoretical athlete? Nontraditional chair styl Nontraditional haircuts Nonuniformed police offic Nonunion employees: Nonunion workplace Nonuniversity type Nonuple Nonvegetarian sandwich, f Nonvegetarian sandwiches, Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication, Nonverbal congratulations Nonverbal O.

Noodge Noodges Noodle Noodle concoction Noodle concoction? Noodle dish Noodle product? Noodle-and-vegetable soup Noodlehead Noodleheads Noodles Noodles in a bowl? Right, Noodles with tempura Noodles, maybe Nook Nook in which a copperhead is enamoured? Normal cost 2 wds. Normal force felt on eart Normal habitat Normal muscle tension Normal procedure at home, interrupting course Normal rhythmical contrac Normal state of bourbon is quite cold Normal state of muscle ti Normal temperature proportion Normal time to retire with gin?

II Normandy was in it: Abb Norris Trophy winner for Norse bolt maker Norse capital Norse collection needed, say, regularly Norse deity Norse deity of mischief Norse epic Norse epics Norse equivalent of Mars Norse god Norse god of discord Norse god of peace Norse god of strife Norse god of thunder Norse god of war Norse god, husband of Frigg, father of Thor Norse goddess married to Norse goddess of fate Norse goddess of love Norse hammer thrower Norse jug?

Norse love goddess Norse mariner Norse myths, e. Abbr North Pole "exports" North Pole assistant? North, south, east or wes North, south, east or west? North-east English metropolitan county since North-east Indian tea state North-east Italian Adriatic resort North-easterly US state North-of-the-border grid North-west town's lost rare items in soup kitchen North-west US state bordering Canada Northamptonshire river Northanger Abbey author Northbound rail out of one poor city district is rather slow Northbound, on most maps Northeast airport Northeast area cuts employment bringing apprehension Northeast college town Northeast Indian state Northeast New Jersey city Northeast state of India Northeast Sudan, once Northeast tollroad option Northeast town named for Northeast, on a map Northeastern city named f Northeastern Indian state Northeastern Indians Northeastern toll road co Northerly locale Northerly Polish mother country, as was Northern Northern 15 at present time Northern air Northern Amer.

Northern and southern lig Northern area right in the middle of futile old sea battle Northern aristocrat many suspect to be an underachiever? Northern arm of the Baltic Sea Northern Australian adult in toilet with Noah's grandson Northern banker in St Helens occasionally Northern base harbouring our country's weapon Northern bird in friendly environment?

Northern idiot entertaining rogue in set showing spite Northern Indians Northern inlets Northern Iraqi Northern Ireland lough Northern Ireland's Shanno Northern Irish politicians securing money repository Northern Irish Protestant Northern Japanese city Northern Lights Northern major-leaguer Northern Manhattan dwelle Northern mountain viewed from East in drawing Northern native Northern Oklahoma city Northern region — Yorkshire's capital — it needs to be redeveloped Northern region of ancient Israel Northern residence Northern runner seen occasionally in St Helens Northern Scandinavian Northern Scandinavians Northern sea duck Northern seabird with short neck and brightly coloured bill Northern short-tailed wild cat s Northern star?

Northern stream Northern supporter runs with promise to deliver port in the north Northern sympathizer Northern terminus of U. Northern tourist attraction needs law on handrails reinstated Northern town's battling heavyweight? Northern valley Northerner Northerner has meat and dessert with pin-up Northerner's brief stay at a hotel in Paris? Stoltenber Norwegian playwright Norwegian playwright, d.

Nose, slangily Nose-burning Nose-gripping specs Nose-in-the-air Nose-in-the-air sorts Nose-in-the-air type Nose-in-the-air types? Nose-noticeable Nose-puckering, in a way Nose-wrinkler Nose-wrinkling Nose: Nosh Nosh includes meat cooked very hot? Nostalgic look Nostalgic number Nostalgic objects Nostalgic setter's one into wine Nostalgic soft drink Nostalgic song Nostalgic song by Acro Nostalgic time Nostalgic tune Nostalgic work Nostalgic, in a way Nostalgist's opening word Nostradamus, e. Nosy Parkers Nosy person Nosy person's affair, in Nosy sort Not Not "dis," in Brooklyn Not "fer" Not 'neath Not a one Not 3 regarding some power needing movement of uranium Not a 23 across, first acting officer Not a bad golf score, inf Not a beginner Not a big spender Not a bit sorry Not a blood relative Not a chap holding rank below duchess?

Not a close game Not a company man? Not a complete amateur Not a copy Not a copy: Not a direct criminal slander Not a dup. Not a good confidant Not a good looker? Not a good person with se Not a good sound for a ba Not a good thing to have Not a good way to buy a c Not a good way to run Not a grade to be proud o Not a guzzler Not a hint of dyspepsia after she ate Not a hit or an out Not a hog Not a job for a claustrop Not a lick Not a long shot, by a lon Not a long-term solution Not a lot Not a mainstream religion Not a major haircut Not a man, woman or child Not a medalist Not a natural blonde Not a news piece Not a nice feeling Not a niche audience Not a part of from the st Not a particular Not a peaceful feeling Not a permanent employee Not a picky eater Not a picky specification Not a popular next-door n Not a pretty picture Not a pro Not a quick jaunt Not a reproduction: Not a sausage Not a saver Not a sharer Not a short story Not a single mistake by a serviceman Not a single person Not a soul Not a soul sister by the sound of it Not a sound president backing Arabian kingdom Not a spendthrift Not a std.

Spoc Not achieved Not aching Not act professionally? Not active Not active, chemically Not active: Not all of part is terrible for Folies performer Not all the mail to be answered privately?

Not all the same Not all the way Not all there Not all together Not all wet? Not allow Not allow to stay Not allowed Not allowed in the shops Not allowed on certain di Not allowed on tin of tobacco Not allowed to go Not allowing Not allowing for compromi Not allowing to speak one Not altogether Not always Not amenable to discipline Not among top players in a tennis tournament Not an abstainer Not an accidental fire Not an elective: Not an emigr Not an exact fig.

Not an expert Not an ideal answer to "D Not an imit. Not an independent thinke Not an iron Not an orig. Not an original Not an upgrade: Not as the crow flies Not as tight Not as touched Not as warm Not as wet Not asea Not ashore Not asleep Not assigned, after "on" Not Astroturf Not at a distance Not at all Not at all avant-garde Not at all bumpkinish Not at all calm Not at all certain Not at all cheerful Not at all chubby Not at all close to Not at all cool Not at all curious Not at all difficult Not at all dull Not at all eager Not at all excited Not at all excited by Not at all fair Not at all familiar Not at all fond of Not at all garrulous Not at all gentle Not at all lethargic Not at all like Not at all loose Not at all nice Not at all practical Not at all quiet Not at all recent: Not at all relaxed Not at all resentful Not at all shady Not at all sour Not at all spicy Not at all stiff Not at all sunny Not at all susceptible to gibes like 16 across, if absorbing Not at all tight Not at all wet Not at all windy Not at ease, perhaps Not at first reasonable impression Not at full power Not at home Not at home during quiet quarter Not at home, eating crackers?

Not barren Not based in reality Not based on fact Not basic Not batting well? Don't rely on your team for help! Not be a nobody Not be a polite winner Not be a rebel Not be able to stomach Not be able to swallow Not be able to take Not be alert Not be brave Not be calm Not be careful with a buc Not be childish Not be choosy very much Not be deadpan Not be definite Not be entirely truthful Not be fair? Not be fast Not be frugal Not be generous Not be generous with Not be haphazard Not be honest about onese Not be just warm Not be juvenile Not be on target Not be oneself?

Not be perfect Not be perpendicular Not be picky with an inst Not be resigned to one's Not be resolved Not be serious Not be so hard Not be spoken aloud Not be up-to-date Not be upright Not be well Not before a stated time Not before minor tucks into pudding? Not beginning to carry or lug Not beginning to flag pain Not beginning to play the guitar, boy musician Not behaving conservative Not behind Not behind the defenders Not being able to stand Not being admitted, woman swore Not being awake as former prime minister stood up Not being productive Not being straight in dreadful court Not being used Not believing it's the CIA complex Not benched, as in hockey Not benched, in hockey Not berthed Not best companion for quiet night out?

Not demand everything one Not dextrous Not diff Not difficult Not digital Not diminished Not direct at all, as gos Not directed Not dis Not dis, in Brooklyn Not discounted Not discounted, say Not discreet Not discriminating Not dismissing out of han Not dismissive of Not dismissive of, as sug Not disparate Not disparately Not dissonant, musically Not distant Not distinct Not distribute Not do anything about Not do as promised Not do one darn thing Not do one's best Not do openly Not do original drawings Not do the rite thing?

Not do well Not do well in the stretc Not do well? Not docked Not doing anything Not doing much disciplini Not doing well at all Not doing well in a race Not dom.

Queen tucks in Not eager Not early or late Not easily angered Not easily bent Not easily debunked Not easily denied Not easily misled Not easily moved? Not electric Not elite Not end on schedule Not energetic? Stop suppressing energy Not enforcing all the law Not engaged Not enjoying a night out Not enlarged or shrunken Not enough Not enough room to swing Not enter deliberately Not enter hurriedly Not entirely accurate Not entirely accurate delivery to leave Not entirely biased?

Not fer Not feral Not fiction Not figurative Not fill something all th Not filmed Not final Not final, as a legal dec Not final, at law Not finding sanctuary in beer garden, wild flower Not fine Not fine-grained Not finished; ruined Not finishing Marx?

Not get along Not get caught by Not get hung up on Not get involved Not get merely by acciden Not get off easily? Not go near Not go on Not go out Not go out for dinner, ma Not go outside the family Not go straight Not go the direct route Not go to bed Not going anywhere Not going anywhere? Not going bankrupt Not going on Not going straight like Oliver? Not going too far Not going under Not good - does things deviously Not good at losing Not good at schmoozing Not good — college friend has trashed his accommodation?

Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN INDIANS; PARTICULARLY Those Nations adjoining to the MISSISSIPPI, EAST and WEST FLORIDA, GEORGIA, SOUTH and NORTH CAROLINA, and VIRGINIA: CONTAINING An ACCOUNT of their Origin, Language, Manners, Religious and Civil Customs, Laws, Form of Government, Punishments, Conduct in War and Domestic Life, their Habits, Diet, Agriculture, . All crossword clues in our system starting with the letter N.