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Over the past two centuries, the relationship between black people and Mormonism has been tumultuous. While at least two black men held the priesthood in the early church, from the mids until , The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints LDS Church had a policy which prevented most men of black African descent from being ordained to the church's lay priesthood and barred black men and women from access to its holy temples.
Under the temple and priesthood restrictions before , most black members of African descent could not be ordained to offices in the Priesthood nor participate in temple ordinances besides baptisms for the dead. For a time in the s and s, they were not allowed to perform baptisms for the dead either.
For men and boys at age 12 in the LDS church, priesthood ordination is required to hold leadership roles , perform baptisms, bless the sacrament , and give other blessings. Since black men of African descent could not hold the priesthood, they were excluded from holding leadership roles and performing these rituals. Temple ordinances are necessary for members to receive the endowment and marriage sealings necessary for exaltation , and most black members could not enjoy these privileges during their lifetimes.
Church leaders taught that these restrictions were commanded by God. Kimball , declared they had received a revelation that the time had come to end these restrictions. After this revelation, people of African descent could hold priesthood offices and could be granted temple admittance. As early as , a church publication stated that blacks could not receive the priesthood because their spirits were less valiant in the pre-existence.
Church leaders used this explanation until ,  when Kimball publicly refuted it; later church leaders have called the explanation a folk belief. Young believed the curse made black people ineligible to vote, marry white people, or hold the priesthood.
Successive church presidents continued to use the Biblical curses to justify excluding black men from priesthood ordination and excluding black men and women from the Church's temples. The racist theories that black skin was a curse or mark of inferiority were not officially contradicted until Young was instrumental in officially legalizing slavery in Utah Territory , teaching that the doctrine of slavery was connected to the priesthood ban.
Slavery in Utah ended in when Congress abolished it. Blacks gained the right to vote in , also through an act of Congress. Young and other church leaders were against interracial marriage. Utah's anti- miscegenation law was repealed in There has never been a written church policy against interracial marriage. Church publications from still recommended that young people marry those with similar racial backgrounds.
Black people in the LDS Church suffered exclusion and discrimination even after the revelation, and many still feel the effects of racist attitudes. Before the civil rights movement , the LDS Church's doctrine-based policy went largely unnoticed and unchallenged for about a century with the First Presidency stating in that the doctrine of the LDS Church which banned interracial marriage and black people from entering the temple or receiving the priesthood was never questioned by any of the church leaders.
The first time, Hugh B. Brown made a statement in general conference supporting civil rights; the second time, the LDS Church refused to support a piece of legislation and the NAACP led an anti-discrimination march in Salt Lake City to protest.
Apostle Ezra Taft Benson was vocally against civil rights. In and , various collegiate athletic teams refused to play matches with Brigham Young University. In the s, three members were excommunicated for criticizing the LDS Church's racial exclusion policies. Church president Kimball refuted racism in the s, and in the LDS Church denounced racism and white supremacy. Though the LDS Church had an open membership policy for all races, they avoided opening missions in areas with large black populations and discouraged people with black ancestry from investigating the church.
After the revelation, the LDS Church actively proselyted to blacks, and black membership greatly increased. Six temples are planned or built in Africa outside of South Africa. In , there were about 1 million black members worldwide. The priesthood of most other Mormon denominations, such as the Community of Christ, Bickertonite, and Strangite, have always been open to persons of all races.
From to , the church prohibited anyone with real or suspected black ancestry from being ordained to the priesthood. In , the church's First Presidency declared in a statement known as " Official Declaration 2 " that the ban had been lifted by the Lord.
Before , a few black men had been ordained to the priesthood under Joseph Smith. As part of this ban, both black men and women at various times were prohibited from taking part in ceremonies in LDS temples , serving in any significant church callings , serving missions,   attending priesthood meetings, speaking at firesides,  : During this time, the church taught that the ban came from God and officially gave several race-based explanations for the ban, including a curse on Cain and his descendants,  Ham's marriage to Egyptus,  a curse on the descendants of Canaan,  and that black people were less valiant in their pre-mortal life.
This was later adopted as scripture. In December , the LDS Church published an essay approved by the First Presidency that disavowed most race-based explanations for the past priesthood restriction and denounced racism. However, it has reiterated that the restriction originated from God and that the ending of the ban was the fulfillment of prophecy. The Book of Abraham and the Official Declaration 2 are still considered scripture.
During the early years of the Latter Day Saint movement , at least two black men held the priesthood and became priests: Elijah Abel and Walker Lewis. Like many Americans at the time, Young, who was also the territorial governor, promoted discriminatory views about black people.
Under the racial restrictions that lasted from Brigham Young's presidency until , persons with any black African ancestry could not receive church priesthood or any temple ordinances including the endowment and eternal marriage or participate in any proxy ordinances for the dead. An important exception to this temple ban was that except for a complete temple ban period from the mids until the early 70s under McKay : Holders of the priesthood officiate at church meetings, perform blessings of healing, and manage church affairs.
Excluding black people from the priesthood meant that men could not hold any significant church leadership roles or participate in many important events such as performing a baptism, blessing the sick, or giving a baby blessing. These ordinances are considered essential to enter the highest degree of heaven, so this meant that they could not enjoy the full privileges enjoyed by other Latter-day Saints during the restriction.
For Latter-day Saints, a celestial marriage is not required to get into the celestial kingdom , but is required to obtain a fullness of glory or exaltation within the celestial kingdom.
Petersen  and Apostle George F. Richards taught that blacks could not achieve exaltation because of their priesthood and temple restrictions. Lee  taught that black people would eventually be able to receive a fullness of glory in the celestial kingdom. In church spokesperson Wendell Ashton stated that Mormon prophets have stated that the time will come when black Mormon men can receive the priesthood. In the LDS Church, a patriarch gives patriarchal blessings to members to help them know their strengths and weaknesses and what to expect in their future life.
The blessings also tell members which tribe of Israel they are descended from. Members who are not literally descended from the tribes are adopted into a tribe, usually Ephraim. In the early 19th and 20th centuries, members were more likely to believe they were literally descended from a certain tribe.
In Elijah Abel's patriarchal blessing, no lineage was declared, and he was promised that in the afterlife he would be equal to his fellow members, and his "soul be white in eternity". Jane Manning James's blessing in gave the lineage of Ham. In , the Presiding Patriarch James H.
Wallis stated that black people could not receive a patriarchal blessing because of the priesthood ban, but that they could receive a blessing without a lineage. In , the Church Historian's Office reported that other lineages had been given, including from Cain. In , the Presiding Patriarch stated that non-Israelite tribes should not be given as a lineage in a patriarchal blessing.
Faust attempted to assure listeners that if they had no declared lineage in their patriarchal blessing, that the Holy Ghost would "purge out the old blood, and make him actually of the seed of Abraham. Some black members have asked for and received new patriarchal blessings including a lineage.
On June 8, , the LDS Church's First Presidency released an official declaration which would allow "all worthy male members of the church [to] be ordained to the priesthood without regard to race or color. The apostle McConkie wrote that all present "received the same message" and were then able to understand "the will of the Lord.
Thomas feared that the church would lose its tax exemption status. The article described the church's racially discriminatory practices in detail. The article inspired internal discussion among church leaders, weakening the idea that the priesthood ban was doctrinal.
Church leaders taught for decades that the priesthood ordination and temple ordinance ban was commanded by God. Brigham Young taught it was a "true eternal principle the Lord Almighty has ordained. It is the policy of the Lord who has established it. BYU Religious Studies professor Randy Bott has suggested that God denied the priesthood to black men in order to protect them from the lowest rung of hell, since one of few damnable sins is to abuse the exercise of the priesthood.
Bott compared the priesthood ban to a parent denying young children the keys to the family car, stating: So, in reality the blacks not having the priesthood was the greatest blessing God could give them.
One of the justifications that the LDS Church used for the discriminatory policy was that black individual's pre-existence spirits were not as virtuous as white pre-existence spirits. Brigham Young rejected the idea that Africans were cursed because they had been less valiant in a premortal life, but Orson Pratt supported it. The LDS Church also used this explanation in their statement explicitly barring blacks from holding the priesthood. Peterson was widely circulated by BYU religion faculty in the s and 60s and used the "less valiant in the pre-existence" explanation to justify segregation, a view which Lowell Bennion and Kendall White, among other members, heavily criticized.
After the priesthood ban ended in , church leaders refuted the idea that black people were less valiant in the pre-existence. In a interview with Time Magazine, Spencer W. Kimball stated that the LDS Church no longer held to the theory that those of African descent were any less valiant in the pre-earth life. Holland stated that inaccurate racial "folklore" was invented to justify the priesthood ban, and that reasons for the previous ban are unknown.
According to the Bible , after Cain killed Abel , God cursed him and put a mark on him , although the Bible does not state what the nature of the mark was. Because of this, Noah cursed Ham's son, Canaan to be "servants of servants".
Both Joseph Smith : Young once taught that the devil was black,  and his successor as church president, John Taylor , taught on multiple occasions that the reason that black people those with the curse of Cain were allowed to survive the flood was so that the devil could be properly represented on the earth through the children of Ham and his wife Egyptus.
In a Liahona article for missionaries, an anonymous but church-sanctioned author reviewed the scriptures about blackness in the Pearl of Great Price. The author postulated that Ham married a descendant of Cain. Therefore Canaan received two curses, one from Noah, and one from being a descendant of Cain.
Short Discourses on Gospel Themes , generating controversy within and without Mormonism. For evidence that modern blacks were descended from Cain, Smith wrote that "it is generally believed that" Cain's curse was continued through his descendants and through Ham's wife. Smith states that "some of the brethren who were associate with Joseph Smith have declared that he taught this doctrine.
McConkie taught that the ancient curse of Cain and Ham was no longer in effect./p>
Words to improve your Scrabble game. Test your visual vocabulary with our question challenge! Noun fortunateness , fortune , luckiness Antonyms: Noun mischance , misfortune , unluckiness Visit the Thesaurus for More. Examples of luck in a Sentence Noun We had good luck fishing. He's been having nothing but bad luck. He succeeded through hard work and a little luck.
We need a bit of luck. By a stroke of luck , there were still a few tickets left when we arrived. He had no better luck than I did. Recent Examples on the Web: Noun Hope this Friday the 13th brings you good luck or at least a cheap tattoo. Opinion," 26 June There is undeniable luck and privilege in being able to shape one's own story as a single woman, as MacNicol is careful to acknowledge.
Why is it a problem? Photographing a rocket launch is a fun challenge with a surprising amount of luck involved. This infertility expert wants to find out," 3 July There was self-inflicted trouble with a sprinkling of bad luck. First Known Use of luck Noun 15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a Verb , in the meaning defined at sense 1.
Learn More about luck. Resources for luck Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. Dictionary Entries near luck Lucioperca Lucite lucivee luck lucken lucken gowan luckily.
Time Traveler for luck The first known use of luck was in the 15th century See more words from the same century. More Definitions for luck. English Language Learners Definition of luck. Kids Definition of luck. More from Merriam-Webster on luck See words that rhyme with luck Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for luck Spanish Central: In , apostle Orson Hyde stated that there was no law in Utah prohibiting or authorizing slavery, and that the decisions on the topic were to remain between slaves and their masters.
He also clarified that individuals' choices on the matter were not in any way a reflection of the church as a whole or its doctrine. After the Compromise of allowed California into the Union as a free state while permitting Utah and New Mexico territories the option of deciding the issue by popular sovereignty , the Utah Territorial Legislature took up the issue of legalizing slavery.
At that time, Brigham Young was governor, and the Utah Territorial Legislature was dominated by church leaders. He made the matter religious by declaring that if members of the church believe in the Bible and the priesthood then they should also believe in slavery. In addition, the law stipulated that slaves must receive schooling. Utah was the only western state or territory that had slaves in ,  but slavery was never important economically in Utah, and there were fewer than slaves in the territory.
In , a company of Mormons under direction of Elders Amasa M. Lyman and Charles C. This first company took 26 slaves,  and more slaves were brought over as San Bernardino continued to grow. However, slavery was openly tolerated in San Bernardino. Judge Benjamin Hayes freed 14 slaves who had belonged to Robert Smith. As in other places in Illinois, only free white males could vote in Nauvoo.
When Utah territory was created, suffrage was only granted to free white males. Brigham Young explained that this was connected to the priesthood ban. He argued that black suffrage would help make blacks equal to whites, which would result in a curse. Before the civil rights movement , the LDS Church's doctrine-based policy went largely unnoticed and unchallenged for around a century   with the First Presidency stating in that the doctrine of the Church which banned interracial marriage and black people from entering the temple or receiving the priesthood was never questioned by any of the Church leaders.
Commission on Civil Rights stated that: The exact extent of his mistreatment is almost impossible to ascertain", explaining that 'Mormon interpretation attributes birth into any race other than the white race as a result of inferior performance in a pre-earth life and teaches that by righteous living, the dark-skinned races may again become 'white and delightsome.
In early , NAACP leadership attempted to arrange meetings with church leadership, but were rebuffed in their efforts. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown , the two counselors to David O. Brown promised that a statement would be made. During the ensuing General Conference, Brown read the statement in support of civil rights legislation before beginning his talk, in a way that made the statement seem official.
In , the church leadership met with the NAACP, and agreed to publish an editorial in church-owned newspaper the Deseret News , which would support civil rights legislation pending in the Utah legislature.
The church failed to follow-through on the commitment, and Tanner explained, "We have decided to remain silent". In , the NAACP issued a statement criticizing the church, saying the church "[had] maintained a rigid and continuous segregation stand" and that the church had made "no effort to counteract the widespread discriminatory practices in education, in housing, in employment, and other areas of life.
Some LDS Church-sponsored troops permitted black youth to join, but a church policy required that the troop leader to be the deacons quorum president, which had the result of excluding black children from that role. Brown's statement in support of civil rights in , Ezra Taft Benson began to tell others in speeches that the civil rights movement was a Communist plot.
Harding , a congressmen from Idaho, criticized Benson's extreme views. Soon afterward, the first presidency appointed Benson to oversee the European states mission. Joseph Fielding Smith privately expressed that he hoped the appointment would help to temper Benson's extreme political views. Benson returned in and had not changed his political views. He gave an inflammatory speech in General Conference, parts of which were removed when the talk appeared in official church publications.
In the October General Conference Apostle Ezra Benson declared that the civil rights movement was a tool of Communist revolutionaries, and that it was led by mostly white male Communists who want to "destroy America by spilling Negro blood". He also stated that accusing law enforcement of "police brutality" against black people should be recognized as attempts to discredit and discourage law enforcement.
Tool of Communist Deception". In , after the assassination of Martin Luther King , black members of the UTEP track team approached their coach and expressed their desire not to compete against BYU in an upcoming meet. When the coach disregarded the athletes' complaint, the athletes boycotted the meet. In , 14 members of the University of Wyoming football team were removed from the team for planning to protest the discriminatory treatment they had received in their previous match with Brigham Young.
They turned on the sprinklers, soaking the University of Wyoming football players. Additionally, a "caricature of an ape and a black man" awaited them in the visitors' locker room, and a local paper reported "BYU cleanses field of evil.
During the first century of its existence, the church discouraged social interaction with blacks and encouraged segregation. Joseph Smith supported segregation, stating "I would confine them [black people] by strict law to their own species".
Reuben Clark , Henry D. Lee , and Mark E. Peterson were leading proponents of segregation. In the First Presidency , under the direction of church president George Albert Smith , sent a response letter to a member about social interaction with black people stating, "Social intercourse between the Whites and the Negroes should certainly not be encouraged" : During the years, different black families were either told by church leadership not to attend church or chose not to attend church after white members complained.
In , mission president, Rulon Howells, decided to segregate the branch in Piracicaba, Brazil , with white members meeting in the chapel and black members meeting in a member's home. When the black members resisted, arguing that integration would help everyone, Howells decided to remove the missionaries from the black members and stop visiting them.
Petersen suggested that a segregated chapel should be created for places where a number of black families joined. The church also advocated for segregation laws and enforced segregation in its facilities. Hotel Utah , a church-run hotel, banned black guests, even when other hotels made exceptions for black celebrities. Church leaders urged white members to join civic groups and opened up LDS chapels "for meetings to prevent Negroes from becoming neighbors", even after a Supreme Court decision against racial covenants in housing.
They counseled members to buy homes so black people wouldn't move next to LDS chapels. Church leaders opposed desegregation in schools, especially at BYU.
Robinson wrote an editorial in the Deseret News, President McKay deleted portions that indicated support for desegregation in schools, explaining it would not be fair to force a white child to learn with a black child. Rueben Clark instructed the general Relief Society president to keep the National Council of Women from supporting going on record in favor of school desegregation.
Church leaders advocated for the segregation of donated blood, concerned that giving white members blood from black people might disqualify them from the priesthood. It was the second-largest in-hospital blood bank.
Racially segregated blood stocks reportedly ended in the s, although white patients worried about receiving blood from a black donor were reassured that this would not happen even after The church's stance against interracial marriage held consistent for over a century while attitudes towards black people and the priesthood, slavery, or equal rights saw considerable changes.
Nearly every decade beginning with the church's formation until the '70s saw some denunciation against miscegenation. Church leaders' views stemmed from the priesthood policy and racist "biological and social" principles of the time. One of the first times that anti-miscegenation feelings were mentioned by church leaders, occurred on February 6, An assistant president of the church, W.
Phelps , wrote a letter theorizing that Ham's wife was a descendant of Cain and that Ham himself was cursed for "marrying a black wife". In , the Utah legislature passed Act in Relation to Service which carried penalties for whites who had sexual relations with blacks. The day after it passed, church president Brigham Young explained that if someone mixes their seed with the seed of Cain, that both they and their children will have the Curse of Cain.
He then prophesied that if the Church were approve of intermarriage with blacks, that the Church would go on to destruction and the priesthood would be taken away. Reuben Clark called racial intermarriage a "wicked virus" in an address in the church's official Improvement Era magazine a predecessor to the current New Era.
Sponberg asked if members of the church should be required to interact with blacks. The First Presidency under George Albert Smith sent a reply on May 5 stating that social interaction with blacks should not be encouraged because it would lead to interracial marriage.
Petersen said in a address that he wanted to preserve the purity of the white race and that Blacks desired to become white through intermarriage. Over twenty years later Petersen denied knowing if the copies of his speech being passed around were authentic or not, apparently out of embarrassment.
Utah's anti-miscegenation law was repealed in by the Utah state legislature. Virginia determined that any prohibition of interracial marriages in the United States was unconstitutional.
This article was printed on June 17, , in the same issue that announced the policy reversal for blacks and the priesthood. Kimball advised BYU students on interracial marriage: There is no condemnation. We have had some of our fine young people who have crossed the lines. We hope they will be very happy, but experience of the brethren through a hundred years has proved to us that marriage is a very difficult thing under any circumstances and the difficulty increases in interrace marriages.
Kimball that recommended the practice of marrying others of similar racial, economic, social, educational, and religious backgrounds. There was no written church policy on interracial marriages, which had been permitted since before the Revelation on the Priesthood. If a black partner contemplating marriage is worthy of going to the Temple, nobody's going to stop him Speaking on behalf of the church, Robert Millet wrote in There is, in fact, no mention whatsoever in this handbook concerning interracial marriages.
In addition, having served as a Church leader for almost 30 years, I can also certify that I have never received official verbal instructions condemning marriages between black and white members.
Between the 19th and midth centuries, some Mormons held racist views, and exclusion from priesthood was not the only discrimination practiced toward black people. With Joseph Smith as the mayor of Nauvoo, blacks were prohibited from holding office or joining the Nauvoo Legion. A report by the US Commission found that blacks experienced the most wide-spread inequality in Utah, and Mormon teachings on blacks were used to explain racist teachings on blacks.
He found that "Mormons resembled the rather 'moderate' denominations such as Presbyterian, Congregational, Episcopalian , rather than the 'fundamentalists' or the sects.
Urban Mormons with a more orthodox view of Mormonism tended to be more tolerant. For example, many members in Brazil did not understand American classifications of race and how it applied to the priesthood ban, causing a rift between the missionaries and members.
Anti-black jokes commonly circulated among Mormons before the revelation. Kimball began preaching against racism. In , he said: A special problem exists with respect to black people because they may not now receive the priesthood. Some members of the Church would justify their own un-Christian discrimination against black people because of that rule with respect to the priesthood, but while this restriction has been imposed by the Lord, it is not for us to add burdens upon the shoulders of our black brethren.
They who have received Christ in faith through authoritative baptism are heirs to the celestial kingdom along with men of all other races. And those who remain faithful to the end may expect that God may finally grant them all blessings they have merited through their righteousness. Such matters are in the Lord's hands.
It is for us to extend our love to all. Today, the church actively opposes racism among its membership. It is currently working to reach out to black people, and has several predominantly black wards inside the United States. In , church president Gordon B. Hinckley said in a General Conference of the church that those who use racial slurs can not be called disciples of Christ.
In the July edition of the New Era , the church published a MormonAd promoting racial equality in the church. The photo contained several youth of a variety of ethic backgrounds with the words "Family Photo" in large print. Underneath the picture are the words "God created the races—but not racism. We are all children of the same Father. Violence and hatred have no place in His family. Black Mormon blogger Tami Smith said that she joyfully heard the statement and felt that the church was standing with black church members.
In the second half of the 20th century some white LDS Church members protested against church teachings and policies excluding black members from temple ordinances and the priesthood. For instance, three members, John Fitzgerald, Douglas A. Wallace, and Byron Marchant, were all excommunicated by the LDS Church in the s for publicly criticizing these teachings in the years , , and respectively. After being legally barred from the following October conference, his house was put under surveillance during the April conference by police at the request of the LDS church and the FBI.
His vote was motivated by the temple and priesthood ban. Others white members who publicly opposed church teachings and policies around black people included Grant Syphers and his wife who were denied access to the temple over their objections, with their San Francisco bishop stating that "Anyone who could not accept the Church's stand on Negroes LDS historian Wayne J. Embry interviewed several black LDS Church members in and reported that all the participants reported "incidents of aloofness on the part of white members, a reluctance or a refusal to shake hands with them or sit by them, and racist comments made to them.
Embry reports that "she [the same black church member] had to write directly to the president of the LDS Church to find out how to be baptized" because none of her fellow church members would tell her. Despite the end of the priesthood ban in , and proclamations from church leadership extolling diversity, racist beliefs in the church prevailed. White church member Eugene England , a professor at Brigham Young University , wrote in that most Mormons still held deeply racist beliefs, including that blacks were descended from Cain and Ham and subject to their curses.
England's students at BYU who reported these beliefs learned them from their parents or from instructors at church, and had little insight into how these beliefs contradicted gospel teachings.
Smith wrote that racism persisted in the church because church leadership had not addressed the ban's origins. This racism persisted in the beliefs that blacks were descendants of Cain, that they were neutral in the war in heaven, and that skin color was tied to righteousness. The dearth of blacks in Mormon church leadership also contributes to black members' feelings of not belonging. The first statement regarding proselyting towards blacks was about slaves.
In , the Church's policy was to not proselyte to slaves unless they had permission from their masters. This policy was changed in , when Smith wrote that slaves should not be taught the gospel at all until after their masters were converted. Bruce McConkie stated in his Mormon Doctrine that the "gospel message of salvation is not carried affirmatively to them, although sometimes negroes search out the truth.
After the Nigerian government stalled the church's visa, apostles did not want to proselyte there. Blacks in South Africa who requested baptism were told that the church was not working among the blacks.
They instituted a mission-wide genealogy program to discover black ancestry, and their official records were marked if any black ancestry was discovered.
Shortly after, missionaries began entering areas of Africa that were more predominately black. The church does not currently keep official records on the race of its membership : Black people have been members of Mormon congregations since its foundation, but in its black membership was small, with about to black members worldwide.
Smith was a vocal advocate of abolishing the slave trade, and followed Owen Lovejoy , an anti-slavery congressman from Illinois, and Abraham Lincoln. He joined the Republican party and advocated for their antislavery politics. He rejected the fugitive slave law, and openly stated that he would assist slaves trying to escape.
The priesthood has always been open to men of all races, and women since They reject the Pearl of Great Price, including the teachings on priesthood restrictions.
Warren Jeffs , President of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints since ,  has made several documented statements on black people including the following:.
The Church of Jesus Christ Bickertonite has advocated full racial integration throughout all aspects of the church since its organization in While America disputed over civil liberties and racial segregation , the church claimed their message was for all races. Historian Dale Morgan wrote in It has taken a strong stand for human rights, and was, for example, uncompromisingly against the Ku Klux Klan during that organization's period of ascendancy after the First World War.
At a time when racial segregation or discrimination was commonplace in most institutions throughout America, two of the most prominent leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ were African American. Apostle John Penn, member of the Quorum of Twelve from to , conducted missionary work with many Italian Americans, and was often referred to as "The Italian's Doctor". Strangites welcomed African Americans into their church during a time when some other factions such as the Utah LDS church, until denied them the priesthood, or certain other benefits of membership.
Strang ordained at least two African Americans to the eldership during his lifetime. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Black people and the priesthood LDS. Black people and early Mormonism. History of slavery in Utah. Repealed from to Overturned on June 12, . Racism in the United States. Did Church leaders ever teach that Blacks were neutral in the "war in Heaven?
Retrieved 22 March The Biblical Justification of American Slavery. Retrieved 3 May On December 6, , the Mormon Church made yet another historical landmark by disavowing the racist theories that were used to justify prohibiting Blacks from full church participation through a ban in effect until Though done surreptitiously on its website, the Church released the 'Race and the Priesthood' declaration and finally addressed the reality of racism that it long denied.
Washington University in St. For the first time, the LDS Church recognized and repudiated its racist past. The Salt Lake Tribune. Black Saints in a White Church. Salt Lake City, Utah: The Mormon Church and Blacks: University of Illinois Press. Retrieved 13 November McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism. University of Utah Press. Neither White Nor Black: The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, — Table 8 on p.
African American Women Confront the West, — University of Oklahoma Press. Jane Elizabeth James never understood the continued denial of her church entitlements. Her autobiography reveals a stubborn adherence to her church even when it ignored her pleas. Changing Mormon Conceptions of Race and Lineage. At least until after Smith's death in , then, there seems to have been no church policy of priesthood denial on racial grounds, and a small number of Mormon blacks were actually given the priesthood.
The best known of these, Elijah Abel, received the priesthood offices of both elder and seventy, apparently in the presence of Smith himself.
A Study in Misplaced Apologetics". Journal of Discourses Vol. Journal of Mormon History. Presidents of the Church, with their counselors, consistently gave permission for this level of temple service to be extended to members of African descent, while also forbidding their participation in the endowment ritual. By the mids, it appears that President McKay seems to have agreed that vicarious ordinances should only be done by white proxies, a practice that seems to have been instigated earlier. By the early s, records indicate that black members, once again, had free access to temple fonts in Utah.
Retrieved 2 August Richards, Conference Report , April , p. Deseret Book Company , , In the meantime, those of that race who receive the testimony of the Restored Gospel may have their family ties protected and other blessings made secure, for in the justice of the Lord they will possess all the blessings to which they are entitled in the eternal plan of Salvation and Exaltation.
No person was foreordained or appointed to sin or to perform a mission of evil. No person is ever predestined to salvation or damnation. Every person has free agency. Lee said, "It's only a matter of time before the black achieves full status in the Church. We must believe in the justice of God. The black will achieve full status, we're just waiting for that time. Lee, , quoting UPI interview published November 16, A Study of Mormons".
One disclosure, with Mr. Reynolds in the office of Wendell J. Ashton, a Mormon executive, offers a distinct jolt. Ashton confirms that 'our black brothers are not permitted to hold the priesthood.
By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog. Race and the Making of the Mormon People. Retrieved 20 April History and a Survey". A Journal of Mormon Thought Latter-day Saints in Modern America. Religion of a Different Color: Race and the Mormon Struggle for Whiteness.
New York, New York: Revelation on the Priesthood". Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 12 October Kimball Ordained Twelfth President of the Church". Retrieved 26 March Neilson 12 August It cannot be looked upon as just that they should be deprived of the power of the Priesthood without it being a punishment for some act, or acts, performed before they were born.
Social Science Perspectives Reprint ed. Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 2 June Thoughts on Things and Stuff. Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 9 September There is a reason why one man is born black and with other disadvantages while another is born white with great advantages.
The reason is that we once had an estate before we came here, and we were obedient, more or less, to the laws that were given us there. Those who were faithful in all things there received greater blessings here, and those who were not faithful received less.
All took sides either with Christ or with Satan. Every man had his agency there, and men receive rewards here based upon their actions there The Negro, evidently, is receiving the reward he merits.
Examining the Religion of the Latter-day Saints. Commission on Civil Rights". United States Government Printing Office. The Mormon interpretation attributes birth into any race other than the white race as a result of inferior performance in a pre-earth life and teaches that by righteous living, the dark-skinned races may again become "white and delightsome.
Jeffrey Holland - PBS". Seeking the Promised Land: Mormons and American Politics. Retrieved 19 August The Lord said, I will not kill Cain, but I will put a mark upon him, and it is seen in the face of every Negro on Earth. And it is the decree of God that that mark shall remain upon the seed of Cain and the curse until all the seed of Abel should be redeemed; and Cain will not receive the Priesthood or Salvation until all the seed of Abel are redeemed.
Any man having one drop of the seed of Cain in him cannot hold the Priesthood and if no other Prophet ever spake it before, I will say it now—in the name of Jesus Christ, I know it is true, and others know it! Let me consent today to mingle my seed with the seed of Cain—it would bring the same curse upon me and it would upon any man.
The Negro should serve the seed of Abraham—but it should be done right—don't abuse the Negro and treat him cruel. As an ensample—let [some] say now, "We will all go and mingle with the seed of Cain I will never admit of it for a moment. The Devil would like to rule part of the time, but I am determined he shall not rule at all, and Negros [sic] shall not rule us. I will not admit of the Devil ruling at all—I will not consent for the seed of Cain to vote for me or my brethren.
The Canaanite cannot have wisdom to do things as the white man has. Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Volume Two: Enos 1 to Alma 29 3rd ed. Retrieved 20 August Why are so many of the inhabitants of the earth cursed with a skin of blackness? It comes in consequence of their fathers rejecting the power of the Holy Priesthood, and the law of God. They will go down to death. And when all the rest of the children have received their blessings in the Holy Priesthood, then that curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will then come up and possess the priesthood, and receive all the blessings which we now are entitled to.
Cain, Ham, and the Priesthood". Archived from the original on 16 September You can see men and women who are sixty or seventy years of age looking young and handsome; but let them apostatize, and they will become grayhaired, wrinkled, and black, just like the Devil. And after the flood we are told that the curse that had been pronounced upon Cain was continued through Ham's wife, as he had married a wife of that seed.
And why did it pass through the flood? Because it was necessary that the devil should have a representation upon the earth as well as God
The Lords Of The Underworld short stories are prequels to the main Lords of the Underworld series. The chronological order of the novellas themselves is the reverse order. A sports-related curse is a superstitious belief in the effective action of some power or evil, that is used to explain the failures or misfortunes of specific sports teams, players, or even cities. Teams, players, and cities often cite a "curse" for many negative things, such as their inability to win a sports championship, or unexpected injuries. From to , the church prohibited anyone with real or suspected black ancestry from being ordained to the pinkideachampagne.com , the church's First Presidency declared in a statement known as "Official Declaration 2" that the ban had been lifted by the pinkideachampagne.com , a few black men had been ordained to the priesthood under Joseph Smith.