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Freemasonry and women have a complex relationship, which can be readily divided into many phases with no demonstrable relationship to each other until the 20th century.
A few women were involved in Freemasonry before the 18th century; however the first printed constitutions of the Premier Grand Lodge of England appeared to bar them from the Craft forever. The French Lodges of Adoption which spread through Continental Europe during the second half of the 18th century admitted Masons and their female relatives to a system of degrees parallel, but unrelated to the original rite. After eclipse in the 19th century, they were revived as women-only lodges in the 20th, and these later adopted the male degrees to give rise to French women's Masonry in the s.
In the late s, rites similar to adoption emerged in the United States, allowing masons and their female relatives to participate in ritual together. These bodies, however, were more careful to discriminate between the mixed ritual and the genuine Freemasonry of the men. In the s, mixed lodges following a standard Masonic ritual started to appear in France, and quickly spread to other countries.
Women-only jurisdictions appeared soon afterwards. As a general rule, the admission of women is now recognised in Continental Grand Orient jurisdictions. In Anglo-American Freemasonry , neither mixed nor all-female lodges are officially recognised, although unofficial relations can be cordial, with premises sometimes shared.
Women in Mediaeval and Renaissance Europe were legally assumed to be subject to their fathers, then to their husbands after marriage. The status of women within Mediaeval trades was largely dependent on the local interpretation of femme sole , the legal term for a single woman.
This was usually the widow of a tradesman, who was permitted to continue her husband's business after his death, and often established in the rights and privileges of his trade guild or company. More rarely, single women would achieve success in their father's trade. Exceptions occurred mainly in trades linked to traditional women's occupations, such as haberdashery and needlecraft.
In England, hints of female participation appear in the Regius Manuscript ca. Women were employed in administrative roles in the London Mason's Company, and as such received the benefits of membership. Also, the charge in York Manuscript No 4 , dated and used as a warrant by the later Grand Lodge of All England at York, contains the phrase "hee or shee that is to be made mason".
While a number of masonic historians have categorised this as a "misprint", Adolphus Frederick Alexander Woodford , who studied and catalogued these documents, considered it genuine. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the status of women amongst masons in Britain is likely to be similar to that codified in the minutes of the lodge at St.
Mary's Chapel in Edinburgh. A burgess could pay for the Freedom to employ and instruct masons. The widow of a master mason could accept commissions from his old clients, provided that she employed a journeyman of the lodge to supervise the work. As the Freemasonry of the Premier Grand Lodge of England spread in France, the French fraternity stayed within the letter of Anderson's proscription of women, but saw no reason to ban them from their banquets or their religious services.
During the s, lodges of adoption began to appear. Attached to a regular men only lodge, wives and female relatives of the masons would be admitted to a parallel system of degrees, with a similar moral undertone to the authentic rite of the lodge. The earliest had a nautical theme. In , the Chevalier Beauchaine began the Order of Woodcutters Ordre des Fendeurs , with rites supposedly based on an early version of the Carbonari.
In , the lodges of adoption came under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient de France , and the published regulations show a system of four degrees: Further degrees came and went, with a ten-degree system evolving at the end of the Eighteenth century. The idea spread widely in Europe, but never appeared in England.
After a brief eclipse during the Reign of Terror at the start of the French Revolution , lodges of adoption flourished, with the Empress Josephine presiding over one in Strasbourg in In , the Grand Orient decided that these lodges were unconstitutional, and they became marginalised until re-activated by the same Grand Orient in In their new incarnation, the chair was taken by a woman, where previously only a man could occupy the "Chair of King Solomon".
Only one lodge, Cosmos , holds to the adoptive rite. Concordant rites exist with the blessing and often the active support of regular masonic lodges. There are several concordant bodies in the United States which admit the wives and female relatives of Freemasons.
The Dutch Order of Weavers admits only the wives, while in the American orders the men and women share in the ritual. Like the lodges of adoption, they have their own ceremonies, which means that some grand lodges view them as irregular. Many rites accepting women have ritual of a Masonic style, are founded by Masons, but at best have an ambivalent reception amongst Grand Lodge masons.
Nonetheless, they actively recruit new members from within regular masonry. There have been a few reported cases of a woman joining a "masculine only" masonic lodge. These cases are exceptions and are debated by masonic historians. One account of a woman being admitted to Freemasonry in the 18th century is the case of Elizabeth Aldworth born St Leger , who is reported to have surreptitiously viewed the proceedings of a Lodge meeting held at Doneraile House, the private house of her father, first Viscount Doneraile, a resident of Doneraile , County Cork , Ireland.
Upon discovering the breach of their secrecy, the Lodge resolved to admit and obligate her, and thereafter she proudly appeared in public in Masonic clothing. Speculative attempts to link the lodge of her initiation with a documented lodge of the Grand Lodge of Ireland have proved futile, but there is no reason that her father should not have instituted a lodge in his home, and the authenticity of her initiation is generally accepted. The story runs that this woman dressed as a man to enlist in the French Army, and attained the rank of Captain of Cavalry.
Since the Army treated her as a man, the Lodge of Freres-Artistes in Paris voted to initiate her, knowing she was a woman, when she presented herself in her cavalry uniform, with her paperwork as an Aide-de-camp.
John and the Grand Orient worked independently from each other. Her initiation was then declared void by decision of Grand Orient and the perpetrators were punished, but the lodge wasn't erased, and only one officer was excluded. The countess defended her request and argued its validity in common law. In her reasoning she brought up her knowledge of freemasonry, her legal status as a son praefectio and the absence of any mention of candidates' gender in the constitution of the Grand Orient.
The Orient, holding to Prussian law, considered the initiation null and void because the usual bureaucratic formalities were not adhered to. In , American newspapers hailed Salome Anderson, of Oakland, California , as "the only female Freemason in the world".
She had, according to some, learned the secrets of masonry by hiding in the lodge room in her uncle's house, and was made a mason in order to pledge her to secrecy.
She served on the board of trustees of her temple, and took higher degrees, as well as joining the Order of the Eastern Star. The theme of a young woman hiding in a lodge room had become a standard formula for this type of report, which was uncritically echoed and embellished as it spread from newspaper to newspaper. Anderson herself denied that it was possible for a woman to be made a mason, but remained non-committal or downright enigmatic when questioned as to the origin of her extensive knowledge of Freemasonry.
Born in Alsace in , she was raised in Paris after her parents died by her uncle, a "prominent mason". She met and married Captain Andrew Anderson in the s, and settled in New Orleans , accompanying her husband on his coastal voyages in their own vessel, and managing their finances.
They moved to Oakland, California, in , where Andrew became a respected businessman and an active mason. He died in , leaving Salome a wealthy widow, who turned her fortune to helping masonic charities.
In spite of opposition, she was elected to the board of trustees. In , the Trestle Board published a biography of her as a prominent citizen and implied that she had acquired some degree of masonic knowledge from the masons meeting at the house of her uncle. The San Francisco News-Letter and Advertiser then embellished the story by saying that she "claimed to be a mason", having cajoled the younger members of her uncle's lodge into clandestinely conferring the three Blue Lodge degrees on her.
This story was rapidly picked up by the West Coast press, and various versions of the story were passed around. While she strenuously denied that she had come by her knowledge in an improper way, in subsequent interviews she refused to be drawn on the source of her masonic knowledge. It not known if she was ever initiated. A similar story was published about Catherine Babington, first in her obituary, in Shelby, North Carolina , in , then in a short book by her son outlining her masonic career.
Hailed as the only female mason in the United States, she is said to have obtained the secrets at the age of 16 by hiding in her uncles' lodge room in Princess, Kentucky. Having lost her father at an early age, she spent much of her childhood at her grandfather's house, where she became a favourite of her uncles. They attended a lodge in an unused chapel above Catherine's school-room, which she often helped them clean. As a teenager, Catherine Sweet Babington being her married name attended lodge meetings for a year, hiding in the old pulpit, finally being discovered when one of her uncles returned unexpectedly for a rifle he had left in the ante-room.
Being questioned by the lodge, it was discovered that she had committed much of the ritual to memory, and was, like Anderson, made a mason to swear her to secrecy, but in this instance not admitted to membership of the lodge. The sole source of the story is her son, and much of the detail remains unconfirmed. There is no account or recollection of such a lodge room in or around Princess. Deraismes was a well known writer and campaigner for democracy, women's rights, and the separation of church and state.
Her lodge, on 9 January, had seceded from la Grande Loge Symbolique Ecossaise in order to initiate her. She then resigned, to enable her lodge to rejoin their previous jurisdiction. She did, however, persist in her efforts to legitimately become a mason, with the assistance of Doctor Georges Martin , a fellow campaigner for women's rights, and a Freemason.
After a decade of trying they started to form their own lodge, and between 1 June and 4 March , assembled 16 women who wished to become masons. This would flourish as international co-masonry, which Deraismes never lived to see. She died the following February. Having resolved at the outset to adopt the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite as their ritual, the new Grand Lodge found itself with only the three craft degrees, and aspiring to a degree system.
Male masons were sent into other jurisdictions to acquire the necessary ritual. In , ten masons in the Droit Humain received the 33rd degree, allowing them to form a Supreme Council. Co-Freemasonry was brought to the English-speaking world by the socialist and theosophist Annie Besant. Passing through the usual three degrees of craft masonry in , she founded the Lodge of Human Duty No.
French-speaking lodges started to appear in the United States in , but it was again Besant who opened the first English speaking lodge, in The French lodges took their lead from the Grand Orient de France in not requiring any religious belief in their members. Besant, with the blessing of Paris, followed the lead of the United Grand Lodge of England in requiring initiates to believe in a supreme being. Craft degrees in English speaking lodges took on a less continental, and more mystical flavour, with Besant importing the Dharma, or Besant Leadbeater ritual to both Britain and the United States.
Modern Co-Freemasonry is divided into self-governing Federations, Jurisdictions, and pioneer lodges, bound to an International Constitution and a Supreme Council, which delegates elect at an international convention every five years. In common with any other Masonic jurisdiction, the president of the Supreme Council is referred to as the Grand Master. It currently has 28, members spread through 60 countries and five continents.
A women's lodge existed in Boston during the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Hannah Mather Crocker , in an apology for Freemasonry written in , claims to have presided over such a lodge, yet her description, "founded on the original principles of true ancient masonry, as far as was consistent with the female character" leaves the actual constitution open to question.
It is also clear that St. Anne's lodge was extinct at the time of her writing about it./p>
Retrieved 9 August The Biology of Traditions: The University Society, Inc. Volume 1, Chapter 9. Retrieved 23 May International Wildlife Encyclopedia Third ed. The Natural History of Canadian Mammals. University of Toronto Press. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. Rat Behavior and Biology. Retrieved 1 December Science Daily — sourced from university of Georgia. Retrieved 2 August Sharper Paradigms, Safer Inferences".
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The social dynamics of copulation: Competition, cooperation, and mate choice". Further evidence for the Coolidge effect in female rats".
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Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Transmission in the Rat Population". The Journal of Parasitology. Retrieved 11 January Retrieved 31 December Russel; Weisbroth, Steven H. Major model organisms in genetics. Extant species of subfamily Murinae Rattus. Luzon broad-toothed rat A. Lesser bandicoot rat B.
Small white-toothed rat B. Andrew's hill rat B. Ryukyu long-tailed giant rat D. Sody's tree rat K. Gray-bellied mountain rat L. Bunn's short-tailed bandicoot rat N. Palawan soft-furred mountain rat P. Flores giant rat P. Sulawesi giant rat P. They also own and operate the famous Bank of Bolius. In , the Bolian government authorized the Ferengi Gaming Commission to manage their gambling emporiums. This form of assisted suicide states that while euthanasia has the effect of relieving suffering it also has the effect of causing death.
Bolian marriages often involve more than two members. Any additional spouse is referred to as a "co-husband" or "co-wife", respectively. Bolian blues is a highly appreciated musical genre among Federation species.
The Borg were discovered to be a group without individuality, where every member is a part of a collective consciousness in an attempt to achieve perfection. They assimilate any species they come into contact with for either biological aspects for example, Talaxians would be assimilated for their dense physical structure, useful for producing strong, resilient drones or technological aspects a species which has developed advanced engines or weaponry would be a sufficiently desirable target for assimilation all in an attempt to further improve the overall perfection of the Borg as a whole.
The Borg have encountered and assimilated thousands of species, quantity most notable by their designation of Species , although more may have been added to the total since that encounter. The Borg are not so much a species, as a collection of species. In their assimilated state, most races are altered or augmented with cybernetic enhancements which make them all look similar, or at least instantly identifiable as Borg, making them a pseudo-species.
Encounters with the Borg have varied in type, from the disastrous defense of the Wolf system " The Best of Both Worlds " , in which many Federation ships were lost, the successful repelling of two Borg cubes from Sector on two separate occasions " The Best of Both Worlds " " Star Trek: First Contact " and the infiltration, usage of and destruction of a Borg transwarp hub a critical part of their interstellar menace by the USS Voyager " Endgame ". Edosians aka Edoans are a race of sentient tripedal beings.
Edosians have an orange complexion, two yellow eyes, three arms and three dog-like legs. Navigator Lieutenant Arex was introduced in Star Trek: The Animated Series , but his planet of origin, Edos , was mentioned only in background material. Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: In some tie-in novels and short stories, Arex is mentioned as actually being a Triexian , with the Edosians being a near-identical race.
El-Aurians referred to as a Race of Listeners by Dr. The Next Generation with the character Guinan. The species was named in the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode " Rivals ". El-Aurians appear outwardly identical to humans, and have a variety of ethnic types, with both dark- and light-skinned members of the race being shown on various Star Trek movies and television episodes. They can live well over years. They are considered a race of listeners and often appear patient and wise.
El-Auria , the El-Aurian homeworld, was located in the Delta Quadrant and was destroyed by the Borg in the midrd century. Few survived, and those who did were scattered throughout the galaxy. Some of the refugees came to the United Federation of Planets. At the start of Star Trek: The Next Generation , the Ferengi are a considered mysterious race who care only about profit.
They feature as major characters in Deep Space Nine. They are the shock troops of the powerful Dominion located in the Gamma Quadrant. Genetically engineered for strength and resolve, they are also short-lived and believe that "victory is life. The Jem'Hadar's numbers are unknown, but they are produced by the thousands as needed.
Conceived as "more than just another fearsome alien", the Deep Space Nine makeup department searched for concepts depicting "toughness and resiliency" in the design of the Jem'Hadar. The final design was based on a rhinoceros , with some added ceratopian traits.
Originally designed on the premise that they were all clones, the first Jem'Hadar seen onscreen were all made to look identical to one another, though as they became more deeply woven into the storylines, each Jem'Hadar was given a distinctive look. The Kazon aliens were introduced on Star Trek: A cat-like race introduced in Star Trek: Kzinti society is a male dominate race of warriors they prefer to use the term "Heroes" led by the Patriarch. Kzinti Heros have much in common with Klingon warriors, in that they highly value courage, fighting prowess, and consider personal honor of highest priority.
The one racial "flaw" that Kzinti have is overconfidence, which manifests itself in a tendency to attack before they are truly ready. This is because they believe that combat, with the removal of all challenge and risk i.
Kzinti Heros place great pride in the scars they receive in battle, they also respect valiant and fierce opponents of other races, ensuring the bodies of these impressive alien warriors are stuffed and placed on honorable memorial display on Kzin, the Kzinti home world. Kzinti male are larger than their more docile females and humans They somewhat resemble a bipedal, barrel-chested, tiger-furred "tabby". Their tails are naked rat like and their ears have spines resembling a section of a parasol.
The Organians are incorporeal energy creatures "pure energy, pure thought" with no precise physical location in the universe. After the climax of the episode " Errand of Mercy ", Spock comments that they are "as far above us on the evolutionary scale as we are above the amoeba. They render all weapons belonging to the hostile parties inoperable through extreme heat, and then vanish.
The Organians were a race of beings who had evolved to a point of being pure conceptual beings, essence of thought with no corporeal bodies. In some ways they were similar to Q for power levels and abilities. In the novel Q Strike , the Organians appear to observe a battle between members of the Q Continuum and other seemingly omnipotent beings from the Star Trek universe.
The original Q identifies them after being asked by Captain Jean-Luc Picard who they are, and is rather dismissive, remarking that "compared to their code of noninvolvement, your Prime Directive is practically an incitement to riot. The Organians also appeared on Star Trek: Enterprise in the episode " Observer Effect ," where they observed members of the crew infected with a silicon-based virus to decide whether or not they should make first contact with humans.
They did not technically appear onscreen; they only manifested themselves by possessing the bodies of several members of the Enterprise crew. Orions are a green-skinned, humanoid alien species in the Star Trek universe. An Orion was first portrayed as an illusion in the original Star Trek pilot, but wasn't seen in the broadcast series until this original pilot was incorporated into a two-part episode episodes 11 and 12 in the first season. Orions have also been portrayed in Star Trek: The Animated Series , Star Trek: Deep Space Nine , Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: The Pakled are a species of space-faring humanoids who obtain technology from other races rather than developing it themselves , often through trickery.
After Chief Engineer Geordi La Forge transported to the Mondor and completed repairs, the Pakled captured him and demanded weapons technologies. The Pakled do not appear again, but are mentioned in the TNG episode " Brothers " as the Pakleds inadvertently having rescued Data's brother Lore , who was beamed into open space at the end of " Datalore ".
Q is the name of a continuum and members of the continuum. Romulans are humanoid extraterrestrials that appear in every Star Trek television series, where members of their race often serve as antagonists. They prominently feature in the film Star Trek Nemesis. Species appeared in four episodes of Star Trek: Voyager , Neelix is a Talaxian. The Tellarites first appeared in " Journey to Babel ".
They have an odd facial appearance, represented by the actors wearing converted pig masks. Culturally, they are known for their love of arguing and blunt, forceful speech, what most other cultures would consider rude; if Tellarite speech is answered in kind, they will typically consider it an honor.
The Thasians are a psionically powerful, non-corporeal species, native to the planet Thasus. Until the 23rd century, the Federation had never encountered the Thasians and thus believed them to be a myth. They appeared in " Charlie X " on the Original Series. The Tholians are an extremely xenophobic, non-humanoid hermaphroditic species with a propensity for precision. They first appear in the original series episode, " The Tholian Web ".
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